We were discussing the noun 'schizophrenia' as coined in psychology from a Greek root 'phren' that originally meant midriff or diaphragm and was later used to apply to the heart (as site of passions) and later the mind.
As philosophers we are interested in what the concept poses as a 'breakdown of rationality' about which Grice (in "Reply to Richards") and Quinton have referred to.
So let us now examine not so much the rather abstract noun 'schizophrenia' but practice some linguistic botany (as Grice called it) into the adjective (and noun), 'schizophrenic'.
The OED tells us plainly that the etymology: < schizophrenia n. + -ic suffix.
as an adjective
Characteristic of or having
1912 Bleuler in Amer. Jrnl. Insanity LXIX. 874
look more closely we find amongst all normal people many and important instances
where thought is divorced both from logic and from reality. I have called these
forms of thinking autistic, corresponding to the idea of schizophrenic
1927 D. K. Henderson & R. D. Gillespie Text-bk. Psychiatry
"It is now generally recognised that although a schizophrenic type of
disturbance is always most serious, there are certain cases which can, and do,
1931 Times Lit. Suppl. 17 Sept. 692/4
Kretschmer manages to convey the impression that all philosophers and tragedians
are schizophrenic, or at least ‘schizoid’."
1945 Times 28 Sept. 7/5
schizophrenic long before the thing became fashionable, half of him being
entirely rational, the other half living in a world in which it was taken for
granted that pigs have wings."
1973 I. L. Child Humanistic Psychol. ix.
"Laing and Esterson..argue that schizophrenic behavior appears in these
patients as a somewhat sensible response to an extremely difficult
1974 R. Passmore & J. S. Robson Compan. Med. Stud. III.
"Other examples are the ‘schizophrenic smile’, which appears without
obvious external cause and is presumed to be a response to an internal
hallucinatory stimulus, and the ‘schizophrenic handshake’, the patient's hand
when grasped remaining limp."
1981 Brit. Med. Jrnl. 24 Jan. 313/3
drugs have certainly facilitated the extramural care of schizophrenic patients
the minimisation of prolonged inpatient treatment has, to a large extent, been
due to social measures and to changes in attitude within the psychiatric
usage b. transf. and fig.,
freq. with the implication of mutually contradictory or inconsistent
1955 Sci. Amer. Oct. 113/1
"The behavior of the puzzled Board
reflected its schizophrenic task. The members performed as part jury, part
judge, and then as part administrative agency, engaged in a part rule-making,
part quasi-judicial proceeding."
1960 Times 13 June 14/1
"It was a
schizophrenic day when nearly every player seemed to live two lives."
A. Lurie Love & Friendship viii. 155
"You're not living two different lives
that don't match... For me it's absolutely impossible. It's
a1974 R. Crossman Diaries (1977) III. 71
"We are all deeply
schizophrenic on this Bill, hate the interference, hate the break with the trade
unions, yet we can see that without it there must be a higher level of
unemployment than we can tolerate."
1978 M. Shanks What's Wrong with Mod.
World? iii. 45
"In their reaction to inflationary pressures government have
been..schizophrenic. On the one hand they have sought..to fight them. On the
other hand they have felt obliged to compensate the victims."
Tel. 24 July 11/5
"The work is schizophrenic in its switches of style from
geniune opera-drama to operetta and then to the typical vehicle for a soprano
anxious and able to sing Ophelia's mad scene."
Usage B. as a noun .
A person with
1926 W. McDougall Outl. Abnormal Psychol. xxiii. 384
delusions and hallucinations of the schizophrenic so commonly concern his
1953 W. S. Burroughs Junkie x. 110
"One young schizophrenic had both
hands fastened in front with a bandage so he could not bother the other
1956 A. Huxley Heaven & Hell 84
"Many schizophrenics pass
most of their time..in a shadowy world of phantoms and unrealities."
M. Argyle Relig. Behaviour ix. 109
"Schizophrenics..are more chaotic and
harbour a number of unrelated fantasies and identifications
1979 N. Scheper-Hughes Saints, Scholars &
Schizophrenics iii. 69/1
"Interviews with Irish schizophrenics support the
hypothesis that the later age of onset of the disease in rural Ireland is
related to the postponed adulthood..of the Irish bachelor."
The OED lists as derivatives
schizophrenically adv. in a manner suggestive or characteristic of
1963 Times 23 Apr. 16/1
exhausted, always eating, schizophrenically incapable of action."
Gramophone Nov. 790/1
"Then there's what one might call a strange psychological
world in which almost schizophrenically Sibelius uses brightness and lightness
juxtaposed with the darkest and most ferocious gestures."
1979 Times 27 Dec.
"Schizophrenically Janus-like, we offer at least two different faces
towards a policeman."
This entry, the OED warns us, has not yet been fully updated (first published 1982).
Cfr. schizo-, comb. form 1840, schizo-affective, ad...1933; schizoid, adj. and n.1925; schizoidia, n.1940; schizont, n.1900; schizonticide, n.1943; schizophrene, n.1925; schizophrenese, n.1964; schizophrenia, n.1912; schizophrenic, adj. ...1912; schizophreniform,
adj.1937; schizophrenogenic, adj.1949; schizostylis, n.1864; schizzo,
n.1686; schlafrock, n.1836
schlag, n.1969; schlagobers, n.1938; schlagsahne, n.1907; schlamperei, n.1961; schlemiel,
schlenter, n. and adj.1864; schlep, n.11939; schlep, n.21964; schlep, v.1922; schlepper, n.1934
schlich, n.1677; schlicht,
adj.1944; Schlieffen, n.1917; schliere, n.1888; schlimazel, n.1948
schlock, n.1915; schlong, n.1969; schloss, n.1820; schlub, n.1964; schlump, n.1948; schlumpy, adj.1956; schm-, comb. form1929; schmaltz, n.1935; schmaltz, v.1936; schmaltzy, adj.1935