The Grice Club


The Grice Club

The club for all those whose members have no (other) club.

Is Grice the greatest philosopher that ever lived?

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Friday, July 20, 2012

My Hart Belongs to Grice


There is a new (as it were) bio of H. L. A. Hart.

I would think there were a few distinctions...

Hart was of a sort of 'rich' background --, from the North of England -- and this "old"
play group that met at All Souls was pretty aristocratic.

Grice was, rather, a 'scholarship boy' as they call them, from the Midlands, and was stuck at Corpus Christi.

And so he just did not socialise with  All Souls (and the 'old' play group that met BEFORE the 'phoney' war).

But Isaiah Berlin indeed thinks that it was in meetings of the old play  group that LINGUISTIC philosophy was created (Berlin et al, Essays on Austin) -- and I would agree.

(It is fascinating to see how Grice's pre-war papers share the approach though -- these are unpublished, on "Negation" and the
"Personal Identity").

So, Grice rather got to know Austin (and his group, as it were) etc. AFTER
the war.

Hart was a member of the new play group too. Hampshire has used  the phrases 'old play
group' and 'new play group').

At points, it would seem as if Grice is considering Hart/Hampshire's
views, as in "Intention, Certainty, and decision" (or something like that) for
"Mind". Note that Grice's (pretty late, 1971) essay is called "Intention and
UNcertainty", rather!

What is fascinating is G. P. Baker's essay on Hart in Hart's
festschrift (Baker also contributed to the GRICE festschrift, ed. Grandy/Warner,
P.G.R.I.C.E.): "Defeasibility and meaning", for indeed, there is a clear
reading alla implicature of what Hart has as inner and outer perspectives of
things like,

"He ought to do it".
And so on.

What Simon Saw


Elsewhere, a point was being made about the Greek for Acts 8:18

ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Σίμων ὅτι διὰ τῆς ἐπιθέσεως τῶν χειρῶν τῶν ἀποστόλων δίδοται τὸ πνεῦμα,
προσήνεγκεν αὐτοῖς χρήματα.

variously translated as per below.

It relates to what Grice has to say about 'see'. To take the first rendering:

"When Simon saw that the Spirit was given when the apostles laid their
hands on people, he offered them money to buy this power."

It may do to symbolise this.

Note that it's a "that"-clause that follows 'see': it is not, obviously, the SPIRIT that Simon saw. He saw, rather, THAT the spirit was given. There are interesting points to raise above this. How does the narrator can claim to know what Simon saw? And so on.

It all relates to a few of Grice's KEYWORDS: implicature, but also: DISIMPLICATURE, and ENTAILMENT. Enjoy!



"Now when Simon saw that the Spirit was given through the laying on of the
apostles’ hands, he offered them money."

"Now when Simon saw that the Spirit was bestowed through the laying on of
the apostles' hands, he offered them money."

"And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy
Ghost was given, he offered them money."

"Now when Simon saw that the Spirit was given through the laying on of the
apostles' hands, he offered them money."

"And when Simon saw that by laying on of the hands of the Apostles The
Spirit of Holiness was given, he brought silver to them."

"Simon saw that the Spirit was given to the Samaritans when the apostles
placed their hands on them. So he offered Peter and John money."

"And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy
Spirit was given, he offered them money."

"And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy
Ghost was given, he offered them money."

"Now when Simon saw that through the laying on of the apostles hands the
Holy Spirit was given, he offered them money."

"And when Simon saw, that by the imposition of the hands of the apostles,
the Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money."

"But Simon, having seen that by the laying on of the hands of the apostles
the Holy Spirit was given, offered them money."

"Now when Simon saw that through the laying on of the apostles' hands the
Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money."

"And when Simon saw that through laying on of the apostles' hands the Holy
Spirit was given, he offered them money."

"When, however, Simon saw that it was through the laying on of the
Apostles' hands that the Spirit was bestowed, he offered them money."

"Now when Simon saw that the Holy Spirit was given through the laying on of
the apostles' hands, he offered them money."

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Implicatures of Masculinity


Johnson's and Meinhoft's is the first extensive account of males' language - of male ways of speaking and of language in the construction of masculinity.

Feminist linguistics has come of age.
Yet, in more than two decades of research, male speaking patterns have largely been taken for granted.
So, what have we learned specifically about men's language and masculinity?
Is it right to assume that men's use of language is the mirror image of what have been considered typically female patterns of interaction?
In what ways does the study of language and masculinity throw new light on traditional assumptions about language and gender?

Language and Masculinity puts the study of male speech and communication on the linguist's - and feminist linguist's - agenda. It will be widely read by students of language, discourse and gender.

Sally Johnson is Lecturer in German Language and Linguistics at Lancaster University. Ulrike Hanna Meinhof is Professor of Cultrual Studies in the Department of Modern Languages at Bradford University.

Implicatures of Masculinity



Language and Masculinity by Sally Johnson and Ulrike Hanna Meinhof (Dec 31, 1996)

Formats Price New Used
Paperback Order in the next 1 hour to get it by Thursday, Jul 12.
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Excerpt – "... coverage of masculinity within ... arts with effeminacy ..." Read More

Saturday, July 7, 2012

Grice Grice


was a tautonym

From today's World Wide Words, online:

"[S]cientific names in which the same word is used for genus and species are called tautonyms. For example, the red fox is Vulpes vulpes and the black rat is Rattus rattus, while the tiny bird called the wren that I sometimes notice in my garden rejoices in the mighty cognomen Troglodytes troglodytes."

In a way, Grice said,

"Do not be more informative than is required."

In Roman,

A: That's a rat.

B: A rat rat?

A: Yes, a rat rat.

Note that the fact that Latin is used instead of English obscures the fact.

Examples above, by Quinion:

That's a rattus rattus -- a black rat. Literally: a rat rat.

The implicature seems to be that a white, say, rat, is not a 'rat rat'.

Note that 'rat rat' is possibly over-informative.


"I hunted a fox fox today".

"You mean a red fox?"

Latin "vulpes vulpes"

A: That's a fox there!

B: A yellow fox.

A: What are you getting at?

B: Not a fox fox ('nec vulpes vulpes').

Linnaeus, who invented all this, had no problems there, since "I always speak Latin to my child."

A: Troglodytes troglodytes.

B: Or, in plainer English, a wren wren.

A: Are you implicating that a troglodytes aedion is not a wren.

B: It is a wren, but not a wren (or double) wren.


Reduplication of the type that flouts Grice's "Do not be overinformative" can apply to any part of speech.

A: I liked it.

B: But did you like it like it?



"I like it very much"

"I like it very very much"


And so on.

Monday, July 2, 2012

Grice's Body


According to Timaeus, before the creation of cosmos (kosmos) there was something corporeal (somaton).

Grice's Body


Plato can be reread in a nondualist manner.

Implicatures of "Body"


(A) soma

σῶμα , ατος, τό (Arc. dat. pl. A. “σωμάτεσι” IG5(2).357.156 (Stymphalus, iii B.C.)),

body of man or beast,

-- but in Hom., as Aristarch. remarks (v. Apollon.Lex.),

always dead body, corpse
(whereas the living body is "δέμας")

“, ὥς τε λέων ἐχάρη μεγάλῳ ἐπὶ σώματι κύρσας”
Iliad 3.23,
cf. 18.161; ς .

“δὲ οἴκαδ᾽ ἐμὸν δόμεναι πάλιν” 7.79; “ς.
κατελείπομεν ἄθαπτον”
 Oddissey 11.53;
“ὦν . . σώματ᾽ ἀκηδέα κεῖται”

so also in
Hes.Sc.426, Simon.119, Pi.O.9.34,
Hdt.7.167, Posidon.14 J.,
Ev.Marc.15.43, etc.;

“τὸ ς. τοῦ τεθνεῶτος” Pl.R.469d, cf.

“ς. νεκρόν” POxy.51.7 (ii A.D.); νεκρὸν ς. Gal.18(2).93,
“νεκρός” 11.1; μέγιστον ς. . . σποδου, = ς. μέγιστον ὃ
σποδός ἐστι, S.El.758;

also later, Wilcken Chr.499 (ii/iii A.D.).

2. the living body --

Batr.44, Thgn.650, Pi.O.6.56, P.8.82,
Hdt.1.139, etc.;
“δόμοι καὶ σώματα” A.Th.896 (lyr.); γενναῖος τῷ ς. S.Ph.51;
εὔρωστος τὸ ς. X.HG6.1.6; τὸ ς. σῴζειν or -εσθαι
save one's life,
D.22.55, Th.1.136; διασῴζειν or “-εσθαι” Isoc.6.46, X.An.5.5.13;
πολλῶν ς. καὶ χρημάτων βουλεύειν” Th.1.85; περὶ τοῦ ς.
ἀγωνίζεσθαι for one's life, Lys.5.1; ἔχειν τὸ ς. κακῶς, ὡς
βέλτιστα, etc., to be in a bad, a good state of bodily health,

3. body,

opp. spirit

(εἴδωλον), Pi.Fr.131;
opp. soul ("ψυχή"),
Plato, Grg.493a, Phd.91d; τὰ τοῦ
ς. ἔργα bodily labours, X.Mem. 2.8.2; αἱ τοῦ ς. ἡδοναί, αἱ κατὰ
τὸ ς. ἡδ., ib.1.5.6, Pl.R.328d; τὰ εἰς τὸ ς. τιμήματα
bodily  punishments, Aeschin.2.139; “τὰ εἰς τὸ ς. ἀδικήματα” PHal.1.193

4. animal body,
opp. plants, Pl.R. 564a (pl.);
but of plants, 1 Ep.Cor.15.38.

civic rights (like Lat. caput), Lys.23.12; ἄτιμοι τὰ ς. And.1.74;
μέρος ἠτιμῶσθαι τοῦ ς. D.51.12.

in the New Testament, of the sacramental body of Christ,
“τοῦτό ἐστι τὸ ς. μου”
Ev.Matt.26.26, cf. 1 Ep.Cor.10.16.


of the body of Christ's church,

“οἱ πολλοὶ ἓν ς. ἐσμεν ἐν
Χριστῷ” Ep.Rom.12.5; ἡ ἐκκλησία ἥτις ἐστὶ τὸ ς. [τοῦ
Χριστοῦ] Ep.Eph.1.23.

II. periphr.,

ἀνθρώπου ς. ἓν οὐδέν,
ἄνθρωπος οὐδὲ εἷς, Hdt.1.32; esp.
in Trag., σῶμα θηρός, = θήρ, S.OC1568 (lyr.);

τεκέων σώματα, =  τέκνα, E.Tr.201 (lyr.); τὸ σὸν ς., = σύ, Id.Hec.301.

Rarely in sg. of
many persons, “σῶμα τέκνων” Id.Med.1108 (anap.).


a person,

human being,

τὰ πολλὰ ς.,
οἱ πολλοί, S.Ant.676; λευκὰ γήρᾳ ς. E. HF909

“ς. ἄδικα” Id.Supp.223, cf. Pl.Lg.908a, PSI 4.359.9 366.7
B.C.), etc.; ἑκάστου τοῦ σώματος, IG12.22.14;

“κατὰ σῶμα”
per person,PRev.Laws50.9 (iii B.C.);

“καταστήσαντες τὸ ς.
τῆς ἐγγύης” PMich.Zen.70.12 (iii B.C.); ἐργαζομένη αὑτῇ τῷ
ἰδίῳ ς.

working for herself, earning her own living,

PEnteux.26.7 (iii

τὰ φίλτατα ς.,
of children, Aeschin.3.78;
of slaves, αἰχμάλωτα ς. D.20.77, IG12(7).386.25 (Amorgos, iii B.C.),
SIG588.64 (Milet., ii B.C.), etc.; οἰκετικὰ ς. Lexap.Aeschin.1.16,
SIG633.88 (Milet., ii B.C.); “δοῦλα” Poll.3.78; ἐλεύθερα ς.
X.HG2.1.19, Plb.2.6.6, etc.; l
ater, σῶμα is used abs. for a slave,
(iii B.C.), Plb.12.16.5, Apoc.18.13, etc.; “ς. γυναικεῖον, ᾇ ὄνομα

. . ” GDI2154.6 (Delph., ii B.C.);

a usage censured by Poll.l.c. and Phryn.355;
also of troops, “τὴν τῶν ς. σύνταξιν” Aen.Tact.1.1;
“μηχανήμασιν ἢ σώμασιν ἐναντιοῦσθαι ὧδε” Id.32.1.

III. generally,

a body, i.e.
any corporeal substance,

δεῖ αὐτὸ (sc. τὸ ὄν)“ ς. μὴ ἔχειν”
Meliss.9; “ἢ μέγεθός ἐστιν ἢ ς. ἐστιν” Gorg.3; ς. ἄψυχον,
ἔμψυχον, Pl.Phdr.245e, cf. Plt.288e, Arist.Ph.265b29, al.; “ὁ λίθος
ἐστι” Luc.Vit.Auct.25; “φασὶν οἱ μὲν ς. εἶναι τὸν χρόνον,
οἱ δὲ
ἀσώματον” S.E.M.10.215; κυκλικὸν ς., of one of the spheres,
Jul.Or.5.162b, al.; τὸ πέμπτον ς.
the fifth element, Philol.12,
Placit.1.3.22, Jul.Or.4.132c; metallic substance, Olymp. Alch.p.71 B.

2. Math., figure of three dimensions,
solid, opp. a surface, etc.,
Arist.Top.142b24, Metaph.1020a14, al.

IV. the body or whole of a thing,
esp. of complete parts of the body,

“τὸ ς. τῶν νεφρῶν” Id.HA497a9; “τὰ ς. τῶν αἰσθητηρίων”
Id.GA744b24; τὸ ς. τῆς γαστρός, τῆς κοιλίας, Gal.15.667,806; “ς
παιδοποιόν” Ael.NA17.42:

the whole body
or frame of a thing,

“ὑπὸ σώματι γᾶς”
A.Th. 947 (lyr.); τὸ ς. τοῦ παντός, τοῦ κόσμου, Pl.Ti.31b. 32c;
ὕδωρ, ποταμοῦ ς. Chaerem.17; τὸ ς. τῆς πίστεως
the body of the proof, i.e. arguments, Arist.Rh.1354a15; “τῆς λέξεως” Longin.Rh.p.188

of a body of writings, Cic.Att.2.1.4; text of a document, opp. ὑπογραφή
, BGU187.12 (ii A.D.), cf. PFay.34.20 (ii A.D.); of a will, POxy.494.30

2. ξύλα σώματα logs, opp. κλάδοι, POxy.1738.3 (iii A.D.); “ς.
περσέας” CPHerm.7 ii 27, cf. iii 8 (iii A.D.). 


corpus, -ŏris, neuter. cf. Sanscr. "kar-:, to make; Lat. "creo", create.


any object composed of materials perceptible by the senses,
body, substance
(opp. anima and animus; cf. the definition in Dig. 41, 3, 30 pr.).

I. Lit.
(very frequent in every period and species of composition).

A. In gen.,
a body, whether living or lifeless:

“tangere aut tangi nisi corpus nulla potest res,”
 Lucr. 1, 305:

“animi  voluptates et dolores nasci fatemur e corporis voluptatibus et doloribus, etc.,”

  Cic. Fin. 1, 17, 55; cf. id. Tusc. 4, 10, 23: “vita, quae corpore et
spiritu continetur,” id. Marcell. 9, 28: “parvissima quaeque Corpora
constabunt ex partibus infinitis,” Lucr. 1, 617: “ignea rerum,” id. 1, 680: “
terraï,” id. 5, 236: “acerbum Neptuni,” id. 2, 472: “aquae,” id. 2, 232 et

—Poet., plur. for sing.: “nudabant corpora (nymphae) venti,” Ov. M. 1,
527; Tib. 1, 8, 52
(cf. σώματα, Soph. Elec. 1232).—

B. In partic.

1. The flesh of animal bodies:
“ossa subjecta corpori,” Cic. N. D. 2, 55, 139; cf. Quint. 1, prooem. §
24; “12, 10, 5: amittere,” to become poor, lean, Lucr. 1, 1038; Cic. Fam. 7,
26, 2 fin.; cf.: “abiit corpusque colorque,” Ov. H. 3, 141; “and the opp.
facere,” to become fat, to thrive, Cels. 7, 3 fin.; cf.: “quo cibo
fecisti tantum corporis,” Phaedr. 3, 7, 5.

—In a play upon words: “inque omni nusquam corpore corpus erat,” Mart.
Spect. 7, 6.—

b. Transf., the wood under the bark of a tree, Plin. 17, 24, 37, § 234.

Of discourse: “nervis illis, quibus causa continetur, adiciunt
superinducti corporis speciem,” the covering, integument, Quint. 5, 8, 2; 2, 10, 5: “
corpus eloquentiae facere,” the substance, the most essential part, id. 10,
1, 87; cf.: “corpus orationis enervatur,” Petr. 2.—

2. A lifeless body, a corpse,
Caes. B. G. 2, 10; 2, 27; Liv. 32, 13, 8 et saep.; Ov. M. 7, 548; id. F. 2,
835 al.
—In a double sense, Cic. Sull. 31, 89 Halm.—Poet.,
the souls of the dead, the shades or departed spirits, Verg. A. 6, 303; 6,

3. As opposed to the head, the trunk, Ov. M. 11, 794.—

4. In mal. part., the body, person:

“usuram ejus corporis cepit sibi,” Plaut. Am. prol. 108: “illa quae corpus
puplicat volgo suum,” id. Bacch. 4, 8, 22; id. Cist. 2, 3, 21; cf.: “
corpore quaestum facere,” id. Poen. 5, 3, 21 al.; “v. quaestus.

— Hence also,” the testicles, Phaedr. 3, 11, 3; Hor. S. 1, 2, 43.—

5. Periphrastically for the individual, the person (esp. poet., to suggest
that which is physically admirable or excellent; “also freq. in the

delecta virum corpora,” Verg. A. 2, 18; cf.: “lectissima matrum,” id. ib.
9, 272: “quo pulchrior alter non fuit, excepto corpore Turni,” id. ib. 7,
650; “11, 690: septena quot annis Corpora natorum,” id. ib. 6, 22: “ultor
vestrae, fidissima corpora, mortis,” Ov. M. 3, 58; 7, 655: “sororum,” Sil.
14, 105; Val. Fl. 2, 653: “conjugum vestraque ac liberorum vestrorum,”
Liv. 21, 13, 7; Tac. A. 4, 72 et saep.: “uti corpora nostra ab injuriā tuta
forent,” Sall. C. 33, 2; Liv. 9, 8, 5; 31, 46, 16: “qui liberum corpus
(sc. Virginiam) in servitutem addixissent,” id. 3, 56, 8; so, “liberum,”
Sall. C. 33, 2; Liv. 5, 22, 1; 29, 21, 6; Plin. Pan. 33, 1.

—Of animals:

corpora magna boum, heads, Verg. G. 3, 369: “seu quis Pascit equos ...
Corpora praecipue matrum legat,” id. ib. 3, 51; id. A. 1, 193: “pro tribus
corporibus triginta milia talentum auri precatur accipias,” Curt. 4, 11, 6.—

II. Metonymy,
a whole composed of parts united, a body, frame, system,
structure, community, corporation, etc.; “of ships,” the framework, Caes. B. C.
1, 54.
—Of fortifications: “totum corpus coronā militum cingere,” Caes. B. G. 7,
—Of a land: “Sicilia dirempta velut a corpore majore,” Just. 4, 1, 1.
—Of the state: “alterum (praeceptum Platonis), ut totum corpus rei
publicae curent, nec dum partem aliquam tuentur, reliquas deserant,” Cic. Off. 1,
25, 85: “quae (multitudo) coalescere in populi unius corpus poterat,” Liv.
1, 8, 1; cf. id. 34, 9, 3; and: “nullum civitatis,” a political body, id.
26, 16, 9; 38, 9, 12; Tac. G. 39; Just. 3, 2, 2: “totum corpus Macedoniae,”
id. 7, 1, 12; Liv. 26, 16, 9: “sui corporis regem creari,” id. 1, 17, 2:
“corpus mercatorum,” guild, Ambros. Ep. 20, 6: “corpori valido caput
deerat (sc. exercitui dux),” Liv. 5, 46, 5: “oriundi ab Sabinis sui corporis
creari regem volebant,” id. 1, 17, 2; cf. id. 4, 9, 4; 6, 34, 5 al.: “
fabrorum et naviculariorum,” Dig. 50, 6, 5: “utros ejus habueris libros ... duo
enim sunt corpora ... an utrosque, nescio,” Cic. Q. Fr. 2, 11 (13), 4; so
of a book, id. Fam. 5, 12, 4; Sen. Tranq. 9, 6; Suet. Gram. 6; Dig. 32, 50
al.; cf.: “corpus omnis Romani juris,” Liv. 3, 34, 7; “hence, Corpus Juris,
” title of a Roman collection of laws, Cod. Just. 5, 13: “rationum,” Dig.
40, 5, 37: “patrimonii,” ib. 4, 2, 20: “omnia maternae hereditatis,” ib.
4, 31, 79.



Grice, H. P. "Method in philosophical psychology". Grice uses 'soul' for 'psykhe', presupposing a corresponding notion of 'body'.

Grice, H. P. "Personal identity". He refers in the opening sections to the mind/body distinction: "I" -- does it refer to a mental item or a bodily item, or both? "I was hit by a cricket ball".





"Some body"

"I am hearing a noise"
"Someone is hearing a noise".


Strawson, "The concept of a person" -- unity body-soul.


Grice-Myro, theory of identity, for identity-thesis.