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Sunday, February 14, 2016

Induced to Inductivism: The Griciean Way


induce, v. Other spelling: "enduce", "enduse", "induse," and "induice". From the Italian, "indūcĕre," to lead into, to introduce, etc. From "in-" + "-dūcĕre," to lead.

In early use the prefix "in-" was commonly assimilated to that of French "enduire" (present subjunctive "enduise" -- cfr. "endue." The Latin verb developed a number of special usages, some of which are represented by obsolete uses in English.

To 'induce' may mean to lead (a person), by persuasion or some influence or motive that acts upon the will, to (into, unto) some action, condition, belief, etc.; to lead on, move, influence, prevail upon (any one) to do something.

 Of persons, personal action, influence, etc.

1480  (▸a1400)    St. Mary of Egypt 562 in W. M. Metcalfe Legends Saints Sc. Dial. (1896) I. 312   Al vthyr als, þat I mycht enduce to þat foly.

1480  (▸a1400)    St. John Baptist 773 in W. M. Metcalfe Legends Saints Sc. Dial. (1896) II. 245   Þe caynis bruthire..with cristine wes enducyt sa, þat he baptysme can haly ta.

1513   R. Fabyan New Cronycles Eng. & Fraunce (1516) I. lxxxxvii. f. xxxviii,   She lafte nat to enduce and tourne her Lord to the faith in all that she myght.

1523   Ld. Berners tr. J. Froissart Cronycles I. cclxxii. 408   He..sayd, he wolde go himselfe to Angolesme to the prince, and to the lordes that be ther, trustyng to..enduse them.

1533   T. More Answere Poysened Bk. i. v. f. xvv,   To enduce them the better to the bylyefe of his great kyndnes.

1633   T. Stafford Pacata Hibernia ii. xxiii. 241   Willingly enduced for just respects, to disengage themselues.

1450   Jacob's Well (1900) 199   Ful perylous it is to inducyn & steryn an-oþer to synne.

1490   Caxton tr. Eneydos xxiv. 90   She can not by no wyse induce herselfe to gyue a reste vnto her eyen by a lityll slepe.

1520   Chron. Eng. vi. f. 67v/1,   He induced the noble men to swere that..they sholde chese Octavianus his sone pope.

1531   T. Elyot Bk. named Gouernour i. v. sig. Cijv,   To induce them in-to a contention with their inferiour companions.

1551   R. Robinson tr. T. More Vtopia ii. sig. Qiiiv,   If he coulde not by fayre & gentle speche induce them vnto his opinion.

1613   S. Purchas Pilgrimage 159   Hee perswaded them for the space of a whole yeare..and at last induced them to leave their riches..and to follow him.

1616   Shakespeare Coriolanus (1623) i. x. 16,   I haue done as you haue done..Induc'd as you haue beene.

1679   Animadv. Speeches 5 Jesuits 20   That Prince..who induces his Subjects into Heresie.

1702   Clarendon's Hist. Rebellion I. i. 4,   I have the more willingly induced my self to this unequal task, out of the hope of contributing somewhat to that blessed end.

1793   E. Burke Observ. Conduct Minority 51 in Two Lett. on Conduct of Domestick Parties

1797.   To induce us to this, Mr. Fox laboured hard to make it appear [etc.].

1852   P. J. Bailey Festus (ed. 5) 223   Where is the spirit which induced me here?

1864   J. R. Lowell Fireside Trav. 266   To induce settlers upon territory of such uninhabitable quality.

1878   R. W. Dale Lect. Preaching (ed. 3) ix. 279   You should try by gentle means to induce the people to make a change.

 Of things, circumstances, or considerations. (Also absol., without personal object expressed.)

1430–40   Lydgate tr. Bochas Fall of Princes (1554) vi. i. 145 b,   People of Grece, of Rome and of Chartage..Were indused by swetenes of language To haue together their conversacion.

1530   Pol. Rel. & L. Poems (1866) 31   Let necessite induce the therto.

1535   T. More Hist. Richard III in Wks. (1557) 53/2   The only induced him to specyall contriuer of al this horrible treson.

1581   J. Bell tr. W. Haddon & J. Foxe Against Jerome Osorius 76   Many men were wonderfully enriched by your Canons: but very fewe enduced to have any especiall regarde to feare God by ye knowledge of them.

1609   S. Rowlands Famous Hist. Guy Earle of Warwick 74   There to be buried where he had been born, Was all the cause that did induce him back.

1654   T. Gataker Disc. Apol. 73,   I make no doubt, but that manie Points and Practises in Poperie..induce millions unto Atheism.

1662   E. Stillingfleet Origines Sacræ iii. i. §1   If I have not a soul of an immortal nature, there can bee no sufficient..motive inducing to it [religion].

1720   D. Waterland 8 Serm. Divinity of Christ 254   Where an Argument is drawn from the natural and necessary Perfections of God, to induce us to some faint resemblance and imitation of them.

1796   H. Hunter tr. J. H. B. de Saint-Pierre Stud. Nature (1799) II. 263   These considerations induce me to believe [etc.].

1871   J. Yeats Techn. Hist. Commerce 427   The demands for food, clothing, fuel and shelter have induced men to labour.

 To lead to the belief or opinion (that); to persuade.

1655   in S. Hartlib Reformed Common-wealth Bees 21   And that out of Kine, either strangled, or otherwise dying, and so lying abroad, exposed to the influence of the Heavens, Bees naturally will not spring, I am induced.

To bring in, introduce (a practice, condition, state of things, custom, law, etc.). Const. into. Obs. or blended with 4.

1401   Pol. Poems (Rolls) II. 51   Ȝour daliaunce inducit ire and envie.

1475  (▸?a1425)    tr. R. Higden Polychron. (Harl. 2261) (1865) I. 251   From the cite made unto clx. yere folowenge was movede noo diuorce. The firste man inducenge hit was callede Carbilius.

1485   Paston Lett. No. 883 III. 318   The seid Henry Tidder..entendith enduce and establisse newe lawes and ordenaunces amongez the Kynggs seid subjetts.

1548   Hall's Vnion: Henry V f. lxvv,   He doubted not but by his onely meanes, peace should be induced.

1589   G. Puttenham Arte Eng. Poesie ii. xii. 86   By some leasurable trauell it were no hard matter to induce all their auncient feete into vse with vs.

1630   J. Wadsworth Eng. Spanish Pilgrime (new ed.) iii. 30   The first that induced this Order of Nunnes, was Father Gerard.

1652   R. Brome Love-sick Court v. iii. 168 in Five New Playes (1659)    If you think it meet, I will induce The practise of it presently.

1802   W. Paley Nat. Theol. v. 60   Occasional irregularities, may subsist, in a considerable degree, without inducing any doubt into the question.

1836   W. Hamilton tr. A. F. Bernhardi in Edinb. Rev. Jan. 419   To induce that numb rigidity into our intellectual life.

To introduce, insert (a material thing).

1420   Pallad. on Husb. vi. 80   Into a potte of erthe enduce a floure Vppon his bough doun bounden ther to dwelle.

To introduce, bring in, present (a person).

1535   T. More Dialoge of Comfort (1553) ii. xvi. sig. K.viv,   Ye blessed Apostle exorteth men yt they should in their bodilye sicknes, induce ye priestes.

1605   B. Jonson Masque of Blacknesse in Wks. (1616) (Rtldg.) 544/2   These [Oceanus and Niger] induced the masquers, which were twelve nymphs.

1652   R. Brome Queen & Concubine i. iii. 8 in Five New Playes (1659)    My last command, which was Never to see the court till I induc'd you.

To introduce or bring in as a character or speaker in a literary work.

1484   Caxton tr. Subtyl Historyes & Fables Esope Pref.,   Esope..induceth the byrdes, the trees and the beestes spekynge.

1534   R. Whittington tr. Cicero Thre Bks. Tullyes Offyces iii. sig. S.1,   Tully..induceth two of Socrates secte of dyuers opinyons.

1558   J. Knox First Blast f. 23v,   In an other place he induceth God speaking to the woman in this sorte.

1613   S. Purchas Pilgrimage 250   The rest are all delivered as the wordes of God; hee being induced as speaker.

1744   Pope Gen. View of epic Poem in Wks. (1871–89) IX. 16   The poet may be seen inducing his personages in the first Illiad.

To introduce, bring in, bring forward, by way of illustration or argument; to adduce, quote.

1433   Lydgate St. Fremund 70   Now purposyng..[to] Induce a story longyng to this mater.

1523   J. Skelton Goodly Garlande of Laurell 94   Ovyde was bannisshed for his skill And many mo whome I cowde enduce.

1570   J. Foxe Actes & Monumentes (rev. ed.) II. 968/1   Long it were to induce here all prophecies that bee read in histories.

1581   in J. Cranstoun Satirical Poems Reformation (1891) I. xliii. 89   Sum auld exemples heir I man induce, To bring my purpose to more speciall.

1605   R. Verstegan Restit. Decayed Intelligence i. 10   All which may enduce sufficient reasons to think him their first chief.

1646   Sir T. Browne Pseudodoxia Epidemica iii. xxv. §3. 173   To exprobrate their Stupiditie, he induceth the providence of Storkes. Now if the bird had been unknown, the illustration had been obscure.

To introduce or bring (a person) into the knowledge of something; to initiate, instruct. Obs.

1477   Caxton tr. R. Le Fèvre Hist. Jason (1913) 94   The sage and wysemen shal enduce and teche the rude peple and harde of entendement.

1483   Caxton tr. J. de Voragine Golden Legende 333/2   He was..wel lerned and enduced in the sacrefyses and werkes of the temple.

1511–12   Act 3 Hen. VIII c. 3 §1   Every man children..shall provyde..a bowe and ij shaftes to enduse and lern theym and bryng them uppe in shotyng.

To introduce to a subject or study; to initiate into; to habituate or accustom to. Obs.

1490   Caxton tr. Eneydos xxi. 77,   I requyre only that he putte this thyng in delaye, for a certayn Space of tyme, Duryng the whiche I may induce my self to sorow.

1534   T. More Treat. Passion in Wks. 1330/1   Inducyng them into the communyon of the Sacramentes.

1553   J. Withals Shorte Dict. Prol.,   A thyng written by me to induce children to the latin tongue.

1561   J. Daus tr. H. Bullinger Hundred Serm. vpon Apocalips Pref. sig. A.v,   The holy Gost beyng sent to his Apostles, which induced them into all truthe.

To bring about, bring on, produce, cause, give rise to. Now widespread in technical contexts, freq. with a concrete or material obj. rather than an abstract one.

1413   Pilgr. Sowle (1483) v. xiv. 107   Euery thyng that werketh naturelly..enduceth the fourme of it seluen.

1475  (▸?a1425)    tr. R. Higden Polychron. (Harl. 2261) (1865) I. 73   That grauntede, that place scholde induce otherwhile the eclipse of the moone.

1523   J. Fitzherbert Bk. Husbandry §164   If thou forgyue not the wronge done vnto the..thou enduces goddes curse to fall vpon ye.

1555   R. Eden tr. Peter Martyr of Angleria Decades of Newe Worlde f. 267,   The Scythian wyll accuse the Romane heauen as induceinge feuers.

1676   M. Hale Contempl. i. 334   There are two things that induce the loss of friends.

1710   H. Prideaux Orig. & Right Tithes i. 7   This induceth a necessity of coming to a positive institution.

1780   J. Harris Philol. Inq. (1781) iii. iii. 267,   I mean gentle walking without inducing fatigue.

1831   D. Brewster Treat. Optics xxviii. 241   The phenomena are related to the shape of the mass in which the change is induced.

1859   J. Lang Wanderings in India 355   Agricultural improvement would induce lasting and increasing prosperity of the cultivating classes.

1874   W. B. Carpenter Princ. Mental Physiol. (1879) i. i. §27 27   Such automatic states..may be artificially induced.

1928   Biol. Abstr. II. 686/2   In the early gastrula stage the whole quadrant lying above the blastopore is capable of inducing formation of a new embryonic axis.

1931   J. Needham Chem. Embryol. I. 579   A piece of the brain of a free-swimming larva would still induce a medullary plate in the early embryo.

1941   Jrnl. Nat. Cancer Inst. (U.S.) 2 199/2   Whether carbon tetrachloride is the active agent in inducing hepatomas in mice or whether these tumors are merely the result of hepatic damage caused by carbon tetrachloride awaits further study.

1947   Growth XI. 228   Fifty-two compounds..were tested for their activity in inducing pectinase production.

1953   Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. XVIII. 101/2   The transition from the prophage to the vegetative state can therefore be induced with a probability of nearly 1.

1968   Ann. Rev. Nuclear Sci. 18 343 (heading)    Compound nuclear reactions induced by heavy ions.
1969   Times 9 June 2/1   How then do D.N.A. viruses induce interferon in the cell?
1971   tr. S.E. Bresler's Introd. Molecular Biol. v. 487   The existence of compounds that repress and induce the formation of enzymes provides direct evidence that regulatory mechanisms are present.
1973   Nature 12 Jan. 132/1   Bachem..induced cataracts in guinea-pigs and rabbits with ultraviolet light.
1973   Nature 9 Feb. 367/1   Whereas 224Ra with a short 3·8 day half life induces in man chiefly osteosarcomas, 226Ra with a half life of 1,620 years induces both osteo and fibrosarcomas.

To produce (an electric current or magnetic state) by induction: see induction n. 10.
1777   T. Cavallo Compl. Treat. Electr. iv. iv. 384   The action of these plates depends upon a principle long ago discovered, viz. the power that an excited electric has to induce a contrary Electricity in a body brought within its sphere of action.
1812   H. Davy Elements Chem. Philos. 133   The conductor, which is thus affected by induced electricity.
1832   M. Faraday in Philos. Trans. (Royal Soc.) 122 125   The power which electricity of tension possesses of causing an opposite electrical state in its vicinity has been expressed by the general term Induction; which, as it has been received into scientific language, may also with propriety, be used in the same general sense to express the power which electrical currents may possess of inducing any particular state upon matter in their immediate neighbourhood.
1839   G. Bird Elements Nat. Philos. 266   A current traversing a wire induces a secondary one in a wire parallel to it.
1855   H. M. Noad Man. Electr. (ed. 4) I. 44   The electricity of e induces a change in the electric state of dc.
1892   S. P. Thompson Dynamo-electr. Machinery (ed. 4) 30   To induce currents in a conductor, there must be a relative motion between conductor and magnet, of such a kind as to alter the number of lines of force embraced in the circuit.

To bring on as a state or condition. Const. upon.
1857–8   E. H. Sears Athanasia xi. 97   This dim and sleepy life is induced upon us that we may not know at the beginning all that we are.
1863   E. V. Neale Analogy Thought & Nature 65   We induce upon the new individual the result of our observation of past individuals.

To initiate (labour) artificially. Cf. induction n. 9.
1852   Lancet 2 Oct. 297/2   Under these circumstances, a new method of inducing premature labour..cannot fail of being recognised by obstetricians as a great boon.
1916   G. P. Shears Obstetrics xxvi. 573   Manual dilatation is not in itself a method of inducing labor, but it is sometimes most valuable in accelerating the progress of labor.
1968   D. C. Bethea Introd. Maternity Nursing ix. 121   The mother who is to have labor induced may feel uneasy... She is likely to want to know if her labor will be longer, harder, or more painful because it is induced.

To cause (a bacterium containing a prophage) to begin the lytic cycle.Quots. 1950, 1951 illustrate the origin of this use in sense 4a   (induce = produce, cause).
[1950   A. Lwoff et al. in Ann. de l'Inst. Pasteur LXXIX. 833   Nous avons induit la lyse de la totalité des bactéries d'une culture de B. megatherium.
1951   Jrnl. Bacteriol. 62 317   Maturation from prophage into phage can be induced in every bacterium of a culture of K12 by irradiation with small doses of ultraviolet rays (Lwoff effect).]
1953   Cold Spring Harbor Symp. Quant. Biol. XVIII. 104/1   In order to be induced to the same extent, cultures of B. megatherium in minimal medium require a dose of ultraviolet light 20 times greater than cultures in yeast extract.
1959   Jacob & Wollman in Burnet & Stanley Viruses II. ix. 332   When..inducible lysogenic bacteria are first induced and then infected with an adequate multiplicity of a mutant of the homologous phage, each bacterium releases particles of the prophage as well as of the mutant type.
1962   Nature 24 Nov. 783/2   Certain antitumour agents are capable of inducing lysogenic bacteria.
1970   Jrnl. Virol. 5 240/2   When an intermediate amount of mitomycin C (1 μg/ml) was also used to induce the culture in addition to thymine deprivation, the production of PBLB was almost doubled.

To lead to (something) as a conclusion or inference; to lead one to infer; to suggest, imply. Obs.
1481   Caxton Tulle of Old Age A v (R. Suppl.),   Notable examples to induce the soul to be perpetuel and most lyght and parfyght.
1581   H. Savile tr. Tacitus Life Agricola (1622) 188   The coloured countenances of the Silures..seeme to induce, that the old Spaniards passed the Sea and possessed those places.
1601   R. Johnson tr. G. Botero Trauellers Breuiat 50   Which are reasons sufficient to induce, that in his gulfe..he hath small meanes to rig out any.
a1623   H. Swinburne Treat. Spousals (1686) 72   The sixth Limitation is, When as by common use of Speech the words induce Matrimony.
1646   Sir T. Browne Pseudodoxia Epidemica iv. x. 201   That an unsavoury odour is gentilitious or nationall unto the Jews,..we cannot well concede, nor will the information of reason or sense induce it.

To infer; esp. in recent use, to infer by reasoning from particular facts to general principles; to derive as an induction.
1563   W. Fulke Goodle Gallerye Causes Meteors ii. f. 16,   If it wer lawful to reason of this sort, we might enduce them to betoken, not only these few things, but al other things yt chanse in the worlde.
1583   W. Fulke Def. Transl. Script.xii. (Parker Soc.) 424   He hath already given you a sufficient reason to induce, that the apostle speaketh not of faith as generally as of knowledge.
1667   R. Allestree Causes Decay Christian Piety viii. 224   'Twould be hard to discern, how from different premises the same conclusion should be induced.
1855   F. P. Cobbe Ess. Intuitive Morals I. 45 (note) ,   We obtain a multitude of contingent truths..and from these we induce the general proposition.
1888   Science Dec. 304   From a sufficient number of results a proposition or law is induced.

To draw (something) on or over; to put on or overspread as a covering or the like. Const. on, upon, over. Obs.
1567   T. Drant tr. Horace Pistles in tr. Horace Arte of Poetrie sig. Eviijv,   Beduske my fraude withe cloudes, my sinnes Induce on theym a night.
1588   J. Read tr. F. Arcaeus Compend. Method f. 69,   Dura mater, which had induce flesh, had induced so beyond all measure [etc.].
1667   Milton Paradise Lost vi. 407   Now Night her course began, and over Heav'n Inducing darkness, grateful truce impos'd.
1708   J. Philips Cyder i. (R.),   There are, who, fondly studious of increase, Rich foreign mould on their ill-natur'd land Induce laborious.
1785   W. Cowper Task i. 32   And o'er the seat, with plenteous wadding stuff'd, Induc'd a splendid cover.

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