We are considering the variants between 'falsified' and 'falsifiable'. Of
course, for Popper the demarcation criterion is falsifiability, a modal
concept. Yet, 'falsifiable' is a derivative of 'falsify', and it may do to
consider the CORE (and only) 'sense' of this, to see if Popper is not
inviting some implicature by sticking with this verb.
verb, as 45% of England's culture, derives from France ("Honi
soit qui mal
y pense"), French "falsifier", ultimately from Latin
from Latin "falsificus", making false, from, of course, "<
"falsum" + -ficare, cfr. -fy, suffix.
The original (and only) sense is
to make false or incorrect, i.e. to
expression can also be used to mean to introduce false matter into or
an incorrect version of (a document, etc.).
The first citation in
English is dated 1449. Later in 1502, it is used
It is from
the "Ordynarye of Crysten Men (de Worde)":
To falsefy the letters of the
Quite a trick, eh?
A few years later, we have a second
1527 R. Thorne, "Divers Voyages"
"Those they have
falsified of late purposely."
This above is more like Popper combined
with Grice. To falsify you really
need to INTEND to falsify, hence the
'purposely'. It is not a falsification
if it "just happens", the fake
Tiziano, to look like the real one.
In 1651, Hobbes waxes Popperian in
his "Leviathan" when he writes:
"They did not therefore falsify the
But of course, they didn't verify them either, is Hobbes's
In the next century it was used
1741 Marquis d'Argens, "Chinese Letters"
"Funeral orations had contributed very much to falsify
The marquis implicature seems to be that, since to falsify
history is a
bad thing, funeral orations should be avoided.
next century, in 1832, Mackintosh in his "Rise & Fall of
"Accused of having falsified the public
-- the invited implicature being of course that this is much
falsify a PRIVATE account, if you've seen one.
years later, in 1855, D. Brewster in his "Memorable Life of Isaac
GOES _really_ Popperian:
"He falsified the document by the substitution
of a paragraph."
NOT the one dealing with the formula for gravity, we
The substituted paragraph is now missing so one
wonders what authority
Brewster is relying on to even SAY (never mind
implicate) that falsification
took place here.
"Falsify" can also be
used, via implicature, to mean to give a false
account of; to
Thus in 1630, W. Prynne in his popular
"Anti-Arminianism", speaks of
"Which falsifies the eternal
-- providing there is one. For Quine criticised the view that 2
an eternal truth.
In 1641, R. Montagu in his "Acts &
"Aemylius Probus mistook, or falsifies
which entails that Montague READ _both_ Aemylius Probus"
Montagu does not consider that Aemylius Probus was
recall the Italian motto: "translator, traitor!"
In 1711, R. Steele writing for "The Spectator"
"Good-breeding has made the tongue falsify the heart."
may do with what Grice calls a non-conversational implicature, due to
maxim, 'be polite'. If you are being polite, it's natural that the
might falsify the heart:
A: What does this dress look on me?
In 1847, R. W. Emerson in his famous essay on "Napoleon",
"He sat in his lonely island, coldly falsifying facts and
-- which sounds as the ideal scientist for Popper! (Just
In an 'absolute' use, it can also be employed, as when in 1791,
his indiscreet "Life Johnson" reports Johnson having
"Lord Bathurst did not intentionally falsify."
-- which for
J. L. Austin ("A plea for excuses") and Grice means Lord
Bathurst did not
In 1824, also in this absolute use, we find in T.
F. Dibdin, "The
"Not that Johnson designedly
So we can say that both Lord Bathurst and Johnson were
innocent. This is
confusing. Since, if Johnson said that Bathurst did not
falsify, but Didbin
adds that Johnson did not falsify, either. We may have
a meta-falsify, which
may be like a 'verify', only different.
1868, again in this absolute use, we find in R. Browning's "Ring":
falsified and fabricated."
This is interesting: To falsify is to say,
say, "Snow is black", to
fabricate is to say "Snow is found in the Moon."
Browning did both -- or his
poetic persona, rather.
can be used to mean to assert falsely.
Thus, in 1606 in a translation
of Justinus's "History", we find:
"How they might take away his life, by
treason to be falsified against
It is treason that is
falsified AGAINST. This is a very complex use of
'falsify' may be used simply to mean to adulterate. Also of disease: to
Thus, in 1562, in Act 5 Elizabeth, we
"Diverse persons diminish, impair and falsify the monies and coins
within this realm."
The implicature the quean invites,
typically, is that they were not
In 1634, in a translation
of one letter by Balzac, we read:
"Those who falsify
The implicature: "are wicked."
In 1656, Manasseh
ben Israel in his "Vindiciæ Judæorum" writes:
"Verdigrease all falsified
-- a complex occurrence.
In 1658 in a translation of
F. Würtz, "Surgeons Guide", we find:
"By diseases, the joint water or
radical humour is falsified."
i.e. not true.
"To falsify" can be
used also to make (a balance or standard) untrue.
Thus in the 1611 King
James Bible, we find in Amos viii. 5
"Falsifying the balances by
Still, Lakatos thinks that falsification can work as the method
mathematical revolutions so perhaps Amos was being a Lakatosian avant
In 1848, R. W. Hamilton, in his "Rewards &
"We are not compelled to falsify our
His use of 'not' is confusing, since there never was an
we should (unless we want punishment)
can also be used to mean to alter or pervert from correct
Thus, in 1589, G. Puttenham in his popular "Arte of English
"There can not be a fouler fault than to falsify his
accent to serve his
-- which however is what Bob Dylan
always does? Is he Popperian?
In 1841, D'Israeli in his "Amenities"
"Spenser falsified accentuation, to adapt it to his
At least he did not falsify the 's' as the SpenCers
"To falsify" can be used also to make unsound.
1868, M. Pattison, in his "Suggestions for an Academic
"An unhappy spirit falsified the relation between the
Between the garden party and the drawing-room party -- very
if Popper disbelieved in spirits -- unhappy or not.
"To falsify" was used by Dryden in an avowed imitation of Italian
Thus in 1697, in his translation of "Eneide" he
"His ample shield is falsified, and round with javelins
Note that here, unlike in Popper, 'falsify' does not apply to
'propositions' but to Turno's shield.
Again Dryden notes:
use the word "falsify" in this place to mean that the shield of Turnus
not of proof against the spears and javelins of the Trojans."
I.e. he is
DEFINING 'falsify' differently, and explicitly stipulating so.
falsify" can be used to mean to produce a counterfeit of; to
Thus in 1601, P. Holland, translating Plinio's "Storie"
"After that crystal was once found out, they devised to
falsify other gems therewith."
A bad thing -- even
In 1699, M. Lister in his "Journey to Paris"
"They stamped and falsified the best ancient medals so
-- that you wouldn't think a Popperian process took
"To falsify" can also be used to mean to get up in imitation of
Thus in 1589, again in G. Puttenham's "Arte of
English Poesie" we find:
"The Lapidarie counterfeits pearls and precious
stones by glass and other
substances falsified, and sophisticate by
The implicature being that this is not so bad, as they do look
sophisticated, even if falsified.
In an Austinian (after J. L.
Austin), 'to falsify' may be used also to
mean to declare or prove to be
This is the earliest use, and thus displaying its original and
In 1449, R. Pecock in his popular "Repressor"
"Forto falsify this present xiije. conclusion."
Popperian usage -- the earliest one, as it applies to the
In 1576, W. Lambarde, in his "Perambulation of Kent",
"He shall have cause, neither to falsify the one opinion lightly,
faith the other unadvisedly."
But that's for the Man of Kent
(not Kentish men) only.
In 1805, T. Jefferson, an American, in his
"Writings", notes that
"No man can falsify any material fact here
This is a performative, and has the force -- or illocutionary
force -- of
an imperative, more specifically a moral prohibition, if not a
In 1849, C. Stovel, in "Canne's Necessitie of Separation",
"Relinquishing all claim to respect by falsifying their own
This is interesting, since to falsify is contrasted with
to affirm -- and
thus related to 'to deny'. It reminds one of Epimenides,
who also falsified
his own affirmation ("I lie.").
In 1876, J. B.
Mozley in his "Sermons," writes:
"The rights of conscience belong so
much to the morality of society now,
that they must falsify any moral
creed opposed to them."
-- implicating: affirm any moral creed agreeing
Especially in Scots Law, we speak of "to falsify a doom", i.e.
to false a
Thus in 1528, in T. Littleton Tenures, we
"It shall not lie in the mouth of the tenant to falsify or defeat
recovery which was against his lord."
The implicature is that
the tenant did not do it.
In 1628, in E. Coke's popular "Institutional
Laws of England", we find:
"To falsify in legal understanding is to
prove false, that is, to avoid or
Since H. L. A. Hart
was wedded (figuratively) to 'defeasibility'
('defeaters) he could be
called a Popperian, as far as Scots law was originally
In 1642, in "Perkins's Profitable Book", we find:
"His wife shall
falsify this recovery in a writ of dower."
And she did!
W. Selwyn, in his "Abridgement of English Law", writes:
was conclusive evidence to falsify the warranty."
And so one wonders if
Popper is being Toulminian (for whom all reasoning
is legal in nature) or
Toulmin is being Popperian.
In 1854, J. W. Smith, in his "Manual of
"To give liberty to falsify the account"
to allow such a Popperian manoeuvre.
"To falsify" can also be used to
mean to fail in fulfilling, or prevent
the fulfilment of (a prediction,
Thus in 1598, Shakespeare, in his rather boring
"Henry IV, Pt. 1", writes:
"By so much shall I falsify men's
Implicating "not THAT much."
In 1719, J. Addison, in his
"Evidence for Christian Religion", notes:
"Jews and Pagans united all
their endeavours to baffle and falsify the
implicature seems to be they failed.
In 1851, W. Collins, in "Rambles
beyond Railways," notes:
"The prognostications of our Cornish friends
were pleasantly falsified."
It did not rain. Had it rained, I would not
still call them 'friends' if
In 1884 in The Liverpool Daily
Post for 10 July 5 we read:
"To consider whether we are contented to
falsify his high regard for us."
Of course not! Nobody should falsify a
high regard -- especially if it is
"To falsify" can also be
used to mean to make a false representation or
statement; to deal in
Thus, in 1629, in a translation of Herodian, we
"Julian was condemned by the soldiery, for falsifying with
-- Never falsify with a soldier -- his implicature, unless you do
In 1646, Sir T. Browne, in his overpopular
"Pseudodoxia Epidemica", notes:
"His wisdom will hardly permit him to
falsify with the Almighty."
implicating God. The implicature of 'hardly'
is less clear -- cfr. The
In 1702, in the English
Theophrastus, we find:
"The practice of falsifying with men will lead us
on insensibly to a
double-dealing with God himself."
being: "and we don't want that." Double-dealing is a good
way to describe
In 1748, in S. Richardson's romantic novel,
"Clarissa," we read:
"Would you either falsify or
i.e. would you either be Popperian or Griceian ("Do not say
believe to be false").
Clarissa did not answer
In 1816, R. B. Sheridan in his often
represented, "School for Scandal"
"To propagate a malicious
truth wantonly is more despicable than to falsify
Which is anti-Popperian in spirit: he is seeing something as
than falsifying: to propagate a truth, when this truth is
malicious. Not the
type of truth that D. Miller ascribes to Popper, "Snow is
white", which he
learned from Tarski in a park in Vienna.
"falsify" may also be used to mean to prove false to, fail to keep; to
break, violate (one's faith, word, etc.).
Thus, in 1532, in T. More
"Confutation of Tyndale" we find:
"I shall finde Tyndale himself so good
a fellow as to falsify his own
words here and bear a poor man
The implicature seems to be that Tyndale was not only a good
In 1590, R. Greene, in his popular "Never too
"Æneas falsified his faith to Dido."
-- but his
fate was to found Rome, so shall we forgive him?
In 1670, Milton, in his
"History of Britain", notes:
"Falsifying that oath, by night with all the
Hhorse they had stole to
A very bad Miltonian thing -- if
"To falsify" can also be used to mean to prove faint; to
fail, give way.
Thus, in 1668, in S. Pepys's "Diary" for 27 Aug., we
"My heart beginning to falsify in this business."
In fencing, incidentally, if you are into that sort of
thing, to falsify
may be used to mean to feign (a blow); to make (a blow)
under cover of a
Thus, in 1595, in V. Saviolo "Practice",
"If you perceive that he go about to falsifie upon you, put
unless you don't know the first thing about
In 1600, E. Fairfax, transalting Tasso's "Godfrey of
"Now strikes he out, and now he
I.e. he is Popperian on occasion ONLY.
In 1619, in the
well-known play by Beaumont & Fletcher< "King & No King,
"Tigranes falsified a blow at your leg, which you
So he tried to falsify, rather.
In 1625, K. Long,
translating J. Barclay's "Argenis," writes:
"One of them making offer at
his neck with a Halbert, and falsifying his
blow, hit him under the short
This use is perhaps not Popperian in that Popper never mentions the
rib "in modern natural science".
In 1680, S. Butler in his
brilliant "Genuine Remains", writes:
"As th' are wont to falsify a
Then there's "falsified":
As in 1577,
in a translation of Bullinger's Godly Sermons":
"They do defile and
blemish the words of God, which deck them with
straunge and falsified
i.e. false titles, simpliciter.
In 1603, in R. Knolles,
"General History of the Turks":
"Your falsified faith."
Is it a
faith? Implicature: No. Just as a decoy (a false duck) ain't a
In 1649, in Milton's "Tenure of Kings," we read:
the falsified names of loyalty and obedience, to colour over their
A bad Miltonian thing -- if Popperian in
In 1886, in the Pall Mall Gazette for 1 July 6/1 we
"The falsified prediction is a good omen."
It won't rain,
so the Cowes Regatta will be enjoyed by all!
And there's also
As in 1565, in J. Jewel's "Defense and Apology of the
Church of England":
"Lies, Corruptions, and Falsifyings." -- NOT an
essay on Popperianism, but
In 1603, in R. Johnson,
translating G. Botero's "History and Description
of the World," we
"Cloth, which by reason of exceeding falsifying and dearnesse of
grows every day into more and more request."
is that he was a closet nudist.
In 1652, in T. Urquhart's
"Εκσκυβαλαυρον", we find:
"He showed such excellent dexterity, in
warding the other's blows,
slighting his falsifyings."
In 1680, in R. Boyle's "Experiments & Notes Producibleness of
Principles", we get Popperian when we read:
from the falsifying alloy."
In 1699, in the "New Dictionary for the
Canting Crew", we find an entry
for "Feinting or Falsifying" that should
have pleased Popper.