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Monday, December 7, 2015

Statements and Aberrations: A Griceian Implicature


The concept of 'hearsay' is formulated in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions (as it were -- what lawyers, if not philosophers, express as 'if, but only if'. And the analysans includes the concept of 'any matter stated'.

But what IS to state?

To state is to give a place, rank, or value to, and related usages. (Usages in this branch are particularly common in 17th cent.)

More specifically: to place, station; (refl.) to position oneself. Also fig. Obs. rare.a1590   Marlowe Jew of Malta (1633) ii. sig. D3,   The Christian Ile of Rhodes, from whence you came, Was lately lost, and you were stated here To be at deadly enmity with Turkes.
1680   in Proc. Soc. Antiquaries Scotl. (1911) 45 241   Ye may think you will escape the judgment of God, but there is an ill licklie of it quhen you state yourselves against his people.
a1734   R. North Examen (1740) iii. vii. §8 510   The capital Practice in the Court of King's Bench, wherein he was stated before he had any Preferment.
1742   Defoe's Tour Great Brit. (ed. 3) II. 129   As the Court is now stated, all the Offices and Places for Business are scatter'd about, here and there.
1845   P. J. Bailey Festus (ed. 2) 5   Some vast temptation calmly comes And states itself before it, like the sun Low looming in the west.

"State" can be used in the passive voice, used to mean, of a quality or attribute: to be present or inherent (in a person or thing). Obs.1631   W. Twisse Discov. D. Iacksons Vanitie ii. viii. 259 an action of the will not of the understanding where wisedome is stated.
1678   R. Barclay Apol. True Christian Divinity vii. vii. 216   The Adjective [Just]..signifies a whom this Quality of Justice is stated.

To state is also to give a particular rank or position to; to rank. Usu. in pass. Obs.1592   Arden of Feversham iii. v. 84,   I haue neglected matters of import That would have stated me aboue thy state.
1632   T. Heywood 2nd Pt. Iron Age sig. H2v,   Shall hee inioy my birth-right, or inherite Where I am heire apparant?..where I am stated, sit?
1682   W. Penn No Cross, No Crown (ed. 2) ix. 177   The Aspiring, Fallen Angels, (that affected to be greater and better than they were made and stated by the great Lord of all).
a1715   Bp. G. Burnet Hist. Own Time (1724) I. 516   The two Religions, Popish and Protestant, were so equally stated in his mind, that a few grains of loyalty..turned the balance with him.

In Scottish English, 'to state' is, with object complement, to invest (a person) with a particular function; to bestow a particular status on (a person). Obs.1689   in Acts Parl. Scotl. (1875) XII. 58/2   That..The clerks should not be allowed to call the Earle of Selkirk before him least þat myght steat him ane petitorie.
a1713   J. Stewart Dirleton's Doubts (1715) 212   A Charter by a Novo-damus..states him the King's immediate Vassal.

To state, and we are getting closer to Grice, is to establish, install (a person) in an office, position, etc.; to vest (a person) in a right or power. Obs.1604   Bacon Certaine Considerations Church of Eng. sig. F2,   Men are stated in them [sc. impropriations] by the highest assurence of the Kingdome, which is Act of Parliament.
1617   T. Middleton & W. Rowley Faire Quarrell i. sig. Cv,   Heere you boaste to mee Of a great reuenew, a large substance Wherein you would endow & state my daughter.
1625   A. Gil Sacred Philos. iv. 35   In which right, If He had not fully stated man-kind, then had the benefit of His purchase beene utterly lost.
1651   R. Baxter Plain Script. Proof 24   Either members must be baptized at their admission, or else after they are stated in the Church.
1702   C. Beaumont J. Beaumont's Psyche (new ed.) ix. xcix. 129   No Proxy He, nor stated in his Might Barely by Patent, but by Native Right.

To state is also to confer or settle (a possession, right, function, etc.) on a person or thing. With in, of, upon. Obs.1633   Bp. J. Hall Plaine Explic. Hard Texts ii. 274   Untill that purchased possession of eternall life may be fully accomplished and stated upon us.
1638   R. Brathwait Barnabæ Itinerarium (new ed.) iii. sig. P5,   These hold and walke together wholly, And state their Lands on uses holy.
a1641   R. Montagu Acts & Monuments (1642) 107   The Scepter..was not stated upon them of the Tribe of Iudah.
1678   R. Sanderson 9 Cases Conscience 104,   I acknowledge the Soveraign Power of this be rightly stated in the House of Commons.

To state is also to put into or cause to be in a specified state, condition, or set of circumstances; esp. to establish in a state of security, peace, etc. Chiefly with in. Usu. in pass. Obs.1607   B. Jonson Volpone iii. ix. 36   To do some violence vpon his parent, On which the Law should take sufficient hold, And you be stated in a double hope.
1628   O. Felltham Resolves: 2nd Cent. lii. sig. R4 v,   Then, the soule stated in a deepe repose, bewrayed her true affections.
1640   J. Shirley Constant Maid ii. ii. sig. C3,   My next work Shall be to..state her body in that modest temper She was possest of.
1655   H. L'Estrange Reign King Charles 53   This answer of the Duke to his impeachment..seemed to state him in impunity.
1683   T. Hunt Def. Charter London 37   Which put many thousand Persons well stated to starving.
1685   C. Cotton tr. Montaigne Ess. I. 495   Happy in this to have stated his affairs to so just a proportion, that his estate is sufficient to do it.
1722   D. Defoe Jrnl. Plague Year 142,   I mean especially, as you and I are stated, without a Dwelling-House of our own.
1786   A. Gib Καινα και Παλαια: Sacred Contempl. i. iv. 147   His will was stated in a wicked contradiction to the authority and will of God.

To state is also to bring about (a state of things). Obs.1654   J. Owen Doctr. Saints Perseverance viii. §16. 197   Take a Cyon..bind it on as close as possible, yet 'tis not united to the Tree, untill the communicated to it, which communication states the union.

To state is also to honour as, or as befits, a person of high status; to treat with pomp and ceremony. Obs.1613   T. Heywood Brazen Age ii. ii. sig. C3v,   Oh you Gods! or make her mine, Stated with vs the Calidonian Queene.
1622   Bacon Hist. Raigne Henry VII 80   For shee was not onely publikely contracted, but stated as a Bride, and solemnly Bedded.
a1625   J. Fletcher Noble Gentleman iii. ii, in F. Beaumont & J. Fletcher Comedies & Trag. (1647) sig. Ee2/2,   'Twill be rarely strange To see him stated thus, as though he went A shroving through the City.

To state is also used in "to state it": to live in a luxurious or ostentatious style; to live or behave as befits a person of high or higher rank. Obs.1625   S. Purchas Pilgrimes IV. vi. ii. 1154,   I will pry in the East and West Indies rather then state it at home.
1655   T. Fuller Church-hist. Brit. v. 178   Wolsey began to state it at York as high as ever before.
1664   T. Killigrew Parsons Wedding iii. v, in Comedies & Trag. 120   What an ugly Whore they have got! how she states it!

To state is also to settle or regulate by authority; to fix at a certain price or amount. Obs.1647   N. Ward Simple Cobler Aggawam 28,   I seriously feare, if the pious Parliament doe not finde a time to state fashions,..God will hardly finde a time to stateReligion or Peace.
1699   Poor Man's Plea against Price of Corn 16   Suppose, for instance in the Southern parts of England,..Corn were stated at 5s. per Bushel for Wheat.
1714   in J. H. Temple & G. Sheldon Hist. Northfield, Mass. (1875) 133   The said Committee are further impowered to state the place of the town upon small lots so as it may be made defensible.
1801   Asiatic Ann. Reg. 1800: Proc. Parl. 16/2   The Tanjore subsidy is stated at something more than the receipt last year, on the supposition that more will be realized from the assumed districts.

To state is also to make dependent on (also upon). Obs.1648   W. Montagu Miscellanea Spiritualia xiii. 159   Let them not think mercy is intailed to the stock of their confidence, but stated upon the conformity and fidelity of their lives.
1665   R. South Serm. preached before Covrt at Christchurch Chappel 12   One of the grand duties of which [sc. religion] is stated upon Repentance.
1671   J. Livingstone Let. 7 Oct. in Sel. Biogr. (1845) I. 242   Persecution [is] bended against all who go not alongs in that apostacie and perjury; and is not, then, suffering stated on as important a quarrel as ever was since the foundation of the world?

To state is also, Prob.: to form or give an opinion upon; to argue (a point). Obs. nonce-use.1671   Milton Samson Agonistes 424   Thou didst plead Divine impulsion prompting how thou might'st Find some occasion to infest our Foes. I state not that; this I am sure; our Foes Found soon occasion [etc.].


TO STATE IS ALSO, used transitively, to declare, present, set out.

 This is chiefly in philosophy and logic.

To formulate (a question, problem, etc.) in the correct or appropriate manner.

Some quotations with paradigmatic usages:

1641   R. Montagu Acts & Monuments (1642) 110  

First the question is not rightly stated in the Conclusion.

1662   Bp. J. Taylor Via Intelligentiæ 8  

We find by a sad experience, that few Questions are well stated.

1680   Dryden in Dryden et al. tr. Ovid Epist. Pref. sig. a2v,  

To state it fairly, Imitation of an Authour is the most advantagious way for a Translator to shew himself, [etc.].

1734   G. Berkeley Analyst 79  

Whether, whatever readiness Analysts acquire in stating a Problem..doth necessarily infer a proportionable ability in conceiving and expressing other Matters?

1795   Gentleman's Mag. 65 ii. 543/2  

Permit me to state a few queries to your Correspondents in general.

1826   R. Whately Elements Logic i. 24  

An argument thus stated regularly and at full length, is called a Syllogism.

1869   J. Martineau Ess. Philos. & Theol. 2nd Ser. 6  

A problem must be stated in order to be solved.

1906   J. N. Keynes Formal Logic (ed. 4) iii. i. 287  

It is state the major premiss first and the conclusion last.

1965   Texas Law Rev. 43 455  

The problem of international jus cogens can be stated in a simple question.

2002   Jrnl. Symbolic Logic 67 741  

A little more background is necessary before stating the question and result.

To state may also be used to mean to state a (also one's) case and variants: to set out the facts of a suit or plea for consideration by a court or other judicial authority. Also more generally: to put forward an argument (cf. sense 9a).1641   J. Hales Way towards Decision Church Govt. 35   It is very hard to state the case truly, according to the circumstances.

1692   Cal. Treasury Papers 265   Mr. Lowndes to state his case to be laid before the King.
1710   J. Addison Whig Examiner No. 5. ⁋3,   I must observe, that the Advocates for this doctrine have stated the case in the softest and most palatable terms that it will bear.
1857   Act 20 & 21 Vict. c. 43 §4   If the..justices be of opinion that the application is merely frivolous..they may refuse to state a case.
1879   Act 42 & 43 Vict. c. 49 § 33   Any person aggrieved who desires to question a conviction..of a court of summary jurisdiction..may apply to such court to state a special case.
1921   E. L. White Andivius Hedulio i. vi. 93,   I essayed to state my side of the case.
1953   H. Street Governmental Liability iv. 122   The tribunal..makes a final decision subject to the right to state a case on a point of law to the Court of Appeal.
1970   Observer 11 Oct. 32/3   On the young left..there are those who refuse to state their case rationally.
2011   Daily Tel. (Nexis) 20 Apr. 20   A speech in London in which he bluntly stated the case for more US troops.

To state is also to set out (a financial account) formally in terms of debit and credit. Later also (Law): to agree (a financial account) between two parties; cf. account stated at account n. Phrases 3f. Also fig.1648   C. Walker Relations & Observ. i. 83   About the beginning of March, was given to Col. Sydenham and Col. Bingham 1000 l. apiece, as part of their Arrears; their Accounts not yet stated.
1690   Jrnl. House of Lords 27 Dec. 14 606/1   An Act for appointing and enabling Commissioners to examine, take, and state, the Public Accompts of the Kingdom.
1712   J. Arbuthnot Law is Bottomless-pit xi. 20   By comparing and stating his Accompts, he discovered that..he had been egregiously Cheated.
1718   Free-thinker No. 33. 2   After this, when he finds himself most in Temper, let him coolly state the Accompts of his Love, by computing..the Profits and the Losses.
1776   in West India Merchant (1778) 54   The method of stating an account by a mercantile equation, pro and con.
1817   Evangelical Guardian & Rev. Oct. 243   Posting their books, stating their accounts, or preparing their goods for exposure to sale on the following day.
1885   Pacific Reporter 5 801   The very conclusion of fact which alone would justify a suit for the recovery of an ascertained and admitted balance, to-wit, that the parties had stated the account.
1903   Trenton (New Jersey) Times 2 May 3/3   W. W. Swett..has stated his accounts and is awaiting the decision of the Orphans' Court concerning disputed claims.
1927   H. L. Davis in J. J. Marke Catal. Law Coll. N.Y. Univ. (1999) 252/2   To act as an arm of the Court, in stating accounts between parties to suits.
1954   Accounting Rev. 29 573/2   If balance sheet accounts are properly stated, the accounts in the income statement are necessarily stated properly.

In mathematics, to state is to specify or arrange (numbers, quantities, etc.) in a way that facilitates solving a problem. Cf. sense 8a.1657   W. Leybourn Arithmetick, Vulgar, Decimal, & Instrumental iii. 264   This and such like Questions..are best performed by the Double Rule of three compounded of five numbers, wherefore the Question may be thus stated. If 2s. 8 d. in three moneths, gains 2 d. what shall 100 li. gain in 11 moneths?
1678   J. Hawkins Cocker's Arithm. xiv. 213   State the numbers as is there Directed in the first order, viz._[table].
1797   Encycl. Brit. II. 302   In general, state the several particulars on which the question depends, as so many simple proportions, [etc.].
1831   T. W. Conkling Young Arithmetician's Guide 118   When coffee is purchased at 1½ cents per ounce, what is 68lbs. worth at that rate? Stated thus; 1 oz. : 1½ cts :: 68 lbs. Examine each term, make the first and third terms alike [etc.].
2008   K. A. Stroud & D. J. Booth Linear Algebra 64   We use a simple row matrix in stating the x- and y-coordinates of a point relative to the x- and y-axes.

In Scottish English, to state is to put forward (a Parliamentary question) in the form in which a vote will be taken upon it; esp. into state a vote. Obs.1677   Bp. G. Burnet Mem. Dukes of Hamilton 204   The Marquis said, the Vote was to be stated, Obey or Not obey.
1700   D. Hume Diary Parl. Scotl. (Bannatyne Club) 9   And then the vote came to be stated, Whether the Parliament should proceed to the Sheriff's procedure, or the Lords' their coming in, under these words Lords or Sheriff. Carried by one vote Sheriffs.
1700   D. Hume Diary Parl. Scotl. (Bannatyne Club) 33   Then the question was offered to be stated To allow the exportation..or Not.
a1722   J. Lauder Decisions (1761) II. 420   Then the vote was stated, If Sir Andrew Kennedy's taking Conservator dues..was relevant to infer deprivation.

In music, to state is to present or introduce (a theme, melody, etc.) in a composition. Also in extended use.1873   Musical Times 15 758/2   An expressive theme, first stated by the tenor, which is effectively developed.
1911   C. V. Stanford Musical Composition vi. 91   A tyro will more or less exhaust his inventive power in the first part, and find himself gravelled after he hasstated his theme.
1944   W. Apel Harvard Dict. Music 285/1   It [sc. a figure] is based on a short melody, called ‘subject’ or ‘theme’, which is stated at the beginning of the figure by one voice alone.
1960   G. Cooper & L. B. Meyer Rhythmic Struct. Music (1963) ii. 37   In the fourth Prelude, on the other hand, the accent is stated in the melody.
2000   S. Broughton et al. World Music: Rough Guide II. i. 65/1   The pallavi may be unfamiliar to the percussionist and the principal soloist therefore states the theme.

To state is also to express in speech or writing; to declare clearly, definitely, or formally (that which one believes to be true); to put forward, proclaim, assert.


I.e. to state is to ASSERT.

Now the usual sense.


With object and infinitive. Freq. in pass.

1642   King Charles I Answer Bk. intituled Declar. Lords & Commons (new ed.) 7  

 The stated to be no other (even by that Declaration which reproved Us) then a plain threat.

1700   J. Jones Myst. Opium Reveal'd viii. 45  

All Authors, who stated Opium to be a Diminisher or Disabler of the Spirits.

1774   Ld. Mansfield in H. Cowper Rep. (1783) 170  

He has stated it to be in Minorca; with a videlicet.

1835   W. Kirby On Power of God in Creation of Animals I. ii. 62  

The ox of Surat is stated to have two of these bosses or humps.

1846   Penny Cycl. Suppl. II. 502/2  

The inhabitants, whose number is stated not to exceed a thousand.

1912   Penn Germania Mar. 174/1  

 A note inserted in the beginning states it to contain copies of hymns by John Kelpius.

2009   Ireland's Eye Jan. 16/1  

Eight demonstrators are stated to be in a serious condition.

 (b) With clause (esp. that-clause) as object.

1655   J. Lightfoot Harmony New-Test. 195  

He states..that the election hath obtained, but the rest are blinded.

1675   G. Harvey Dis. of London x. 130  

It may be stated, that the intemperament of the Blood, which is the parent of the Scorvey, is two-fold.

1768   W. Blackstone Comm. Laws Eng. III. 221  

An assise of nusance is a writ, wherein it is stated that the party injured complains of some fact done.

1790   W. Paley Horæ Paulinæ xv. 378  

The subscription of the first epistle to the Corinthians states that it was written from Philippi.

1838   S. Smiles Physical Educ. 10  

Here we may state what is the scope and object of a proper physical education.

1850   W. E. Gladstone Giacomo Leopardi in Q. Rev. Mar. 332  

We may state that his father was be a man of extreme opinions.

1866   C. Thirlwall Let. 24 Aug. (1881) II. 77  

Diego then stated that he was going to the university of Salamanca.

1915   D. Haig Diary 2 Apr. in War Diaries (2005) 113,  

I received back a letter I had sent to the CGS stating what I proposed to do in the way of exploding mines.

1940   Science 24 May 506/1  

 Von Baer makes quite clear his reason for stating that Purkinje's vesicle is absent.

1972   Computer Jrnl. 15 200/2  

One field..contains an entry stating who is allowed to overwrite the file.

2008   A. A. Mosshammer Easter Computus & Origins Christian Era (2009) xv. 339  

Modern reference-works often state that Dionysius dated the Nativity to December of the year 753 from the foundation of Rome.

 (c) With simple object.

1667   R. Boyle Origine Formes & Qualities (ed. 2) 332  

Themes, where the names that are of very common and necessary use have (yet) their significations very little stated or agreed on.

1702   Clarendon's Hist. Rebellion I. i. 17   It was thought fit, that the whole Affair..should be stated and enlarged upon, in a Conference between the two Houses.
1764   O. Goldsmith Traveller 19   Yet think not thus, when Freedom's ills I state, I mean to flatter kings, or court the great.

1810   Scott Let. 3 July (1932) II. 357   The only purpose which I suppose Lord Lauderdale had in view was to state charges which could neither be understood nor refuted.
1860   J. Tyndall Glaciers of Alps ii. i. 224   It will not be a useless state..our present views of light and heat.
1891   Law Times 90 463/1   The contents of the deed were falsely stated.
1913   Mod. Lang. Notes 28 26/2   His relations to Virgil and to Theocritus are stated only in rather general terms.
1956   H. L. Mencken Minority Rep. 181   It is never possible for a metaphysician to state his ideas in plain English.
1996   C. Higson Getting Rid of Mr Kitchen i. 10   You have to be told. It's for your own good. I'm just stating the facts.
2010   S.–T. Yan & S. Nadis Shape Inner Space iii. 39   The goal of this approach, broadly stated, is to exploit the powerful methods of analysis.
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 (d) With direct speech as object.1804   J. Duncumb Coll. Hist. County Hereford I. 264   His lady, also, he stated, ‘had been restrained of her liberty without cause’.
1817   Scott Rob Roy (1818) II. v. 113   ‘The servants,’ he stated, ‘with the tenantry and others, had been all regularly enrolled and mustered.’
1864   London Society Dec. 546/1   ‘I am well in health,’ she stated in this letter.
1919   Business Digest 11 Nov. 539/2   Of the terrible Salem fire the report states: ‘The fire lasted thirteen hours and covered an area of 251 acres.’
1981   D. Anderson Rough Layout xx. 158   ‘It was after the war, remember, when we really settled down together,’ Adele stated matter-of-factly.
2010   Independent 27 Apr. 23/2   He [sc. the writer Ian McEwan] once stated: ‘I hate comic novels.’

To state is also to specify or quote (an amount, price, etc.).1658   W. Sanderson Compl. Hist. Life King Charles 922   The House of Commons..urged them positively to set down their sum... And had it stated to be no less then five hundred thousand pounds.
1692   F. Atterbury Serm. Whitehall 1   The true Price of Duties is there justly stated.
1789   New London Mag. July 370/2   Fifteen thousand men effective are stated.
1823   R. Southey Hist. Peninsular War I. 373   The numbers of the Spanish army have been variously stated from 14,000 to 40,000.
1854   Poultry Chron. 2 147   State your profession, especially if a clergyman.
1902   F. Seebohm Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law i. 1   The Anglo-Saxon wergelds were stated, with perhaps one exception, in silver scillings.
1940   Language 16 301   Collocation establishes categories by stating the elements with which the element being studied enters into possible combinations.
2002   N. Wall External Infl. iv. 49   Any variations in prices in different countries will be easily visible to consumers because they will all be stated in euros.

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