The concept of 'hearsay' is formulated in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions (as it were -- what lawyers, if not philosophers, express as 'if, but only if'. And the analysans includes the concept of 'any matter stated'.
But what IS to state?
To state is to give a place, rank, or value to, and related usages.
(Usages in this branch are particularly common in 17th
More specifically: to place, station; (refl.)
to position oneself. Also fig. Obs. rare.a1590 Marlowe Jew of Malta (1633) ii.
sig. D3, The Christian Ile of Rhodes, from whence you came, Was lately lost,
and you were stated here To be at deadly enmity with Turkes.
1680 in Proc.
Soc. Antiquaries Scotl. (1911) 45 241 Ye may think you will escape the
judgment of God, but there is an ill licklie of it quhen you state yourselves
against his people.
a1734 R. North Examen (1740) iii. vii. §8 510 The
capital Practice in the Court of King's Bench, wherein he was stated before he
had any Preferment.
1742 Defoe's Tour Great Brit. (ed. 3) II. 129 As the
Court is now stated, all the Offices and Places for Business are scatter'd
about, here and there.
1845 P. J. Bailey Festus (ed. 2) 5 Some vast
temptation calmly comes And states itself before it, like the sun Low looming in
"State" can be used in the passive voice, used to mean, of a quality or
attribute: to be present or inherent (in a person or thing). Obs.1631 W.
Twisse Discov. D. Iacksons Vanitie ii. viii. 259 Intention..is an action of
the will not of the understanding where wisedome is stated.
1678 R. Barclay
Apol. True Christian Divinity vii. vii. 216 The Adjective [Just]..signifies a
Man..in whom this Quality of Justice is stated.
To state is also to give a particular rank or position
to; to rank. Usu. in pass. Obs.1592 Arden of Feversham iii. v. 84, I haue
neglected matters of import That would have stated me aboue thy state.
T. Heywood 2nd Pt. Iron Age sig. H2v, Shall hee inioy my birth-right, or
inherite Where I am heire apparant?..where I am stated, sit?
1682 W. Penn
No Cross, No Crown (ed. 2) ix. 177 The Aspiring, Fallen Angels, (that affected
to be greater and better than they were made and stated by the great Lord of
a1715 Bp. G. Burnet Hist. Own Time (1724) I. 516 The two Religions,
Popish and Protestant, were so equally stated in his mind, that a few grains of
loyalty..turned the balance with him.
In Scottish English, 'to state' is, with object complement, to invest (a person) with
a particular function; to bestow a particular status on (a person). Obs.1689
in Acts Parl. Scotl. (1875) XII. 58/2 That..The clerks should not be allowed
to call the Earle of Selkirk before him least þat myght steat him ane
a1713 J. Stewart Dirleton's Doubts (1715) 212 A Charter by a
Novo-damus..states him the King's immediate Vassal.
To state, and we are getting closer to Grice, is to establish, install (a person) in an
office, position, etc.; to vest (a person) in a right or power. Obs.1604 Bacon
Certaine Considerations Church of Eng. sig. F2, Men are stated in them [sc.
impropriations] by the highest assurence of the Kingdome, which is Act of
1617 T. Middleton & W. Rowley Faire Quarrell i. sig. Cv,
Heere you boaste to mee Of a great reuenew, a large substance Wherein you would
endow & state my daughter.
1625 A. Gil Sacred Philos. iv. 35 In which
right, If He had not fully stated man-kind, then had the benefit of His purchase
beene utterly lost.
1651 R. Baxter Plain Script. Proof 24 Either members
must be baptized at their admission, or else after they are stated in the
1702 C. Beaumont J. Beaumont's Psyche (new ed.) ix. xcix. 129 No
Proxy He, nor stated in his Might Barely by Patent, but by Native
To state is also to confer or
settle (a possession, right, function, etc.) on a person or thing. With in, of,
upon. Obs.1633 Bp. J. Hall Plaine Explic. Hard Texts ii. 274 Untill that
purchased possession of eternall life may be fully accomplished and stated upon
1638 R. Brathwait Barnabæ Itinerarium (new ed.) iii. sig. P5, These
hold and walke together wholly, And state their Lands on uses holy.
R. Montagu Acts & Monuments (1642) 107 The Scepter..was not stated upon
them of the Tribe of Iudah.
1678 R. Sanderson 9 Cases Conscience 104, I
acknowledge the Soveraign Power of this Nation..to be rightly stated in the
House of Commons.
To state is also to put into
or cause to be in a specified state, condition, or set of circumstances; esp. to
establish in a state of security, peace, etc. Chiefly with in. Usu. in pass.
Obs.1607 B. Jonson Volpone iii. ix. 36 To do some violence vpon his parent,
On which the Law should take sufficient hold, And you be stated in a double
1628 O. Felltham Resolves: 2nd Cent. lii. sig. R4 v, Then, the
soule stated in a deepe repose, bewrayed her true affections.
Shirley Constant Maid ii. ii. sig. C3, My next work Shall be to..state her
body in that modest temper She was possest of.
1655 H. L'Estrange Reign
King Charles 53 This answer of the Duke to his impeachment..seemed to state
him in impunity.
1683 T. Hunt Def. Charter London 37 Which put many
thousand Persons well stated to starving.
1685 C. Cotton tr. Montaigne Ess.
I. 495 Happy in this to have stated his affairs to so just a proportion, that
his estate is sufficient to do it.
1722 D. Defoe Jrnl. Plague Year 142, I
mean especially, as you and I are stated, without a Dwelling-House of our
1786 A. Gib Καινα και Παλαια: Sacred Contempl. i. iv. 147 His will
was stated in a wicked contradiction to the authority and will of God.
To state is also to bring about (a state of things).
Obs.1654 J. Owen Doctr. Saints Perseverance viii. §16. 197 Take a Cyon..bind
it on as close as possible, yet 'tis not united to the Tree, untill the
Sappe..be communicated to it, which communication states the union.
To state is also to honour as, or as befits, a person
of high status; to treat with pomp and ceremony. Obs.1613 T. Heywood Brazen
Age ii. ii. sig. C3v, Oh you Gods! or make her mine, Stated with vs the
1622 Bacon Hist. Raigne Henry VII 80 For shee was not
onely publikely contracted, but stated as a Bride, and solemnly
a1625 J. Fletcher Noble Gentleman iii. ii, in F. Beaumont & J.
Fletcher Comedies & Trag. (1647) sig. Ee2/2, 'Twill be rarely strange To
see him stated thus, as though he went A shroving through the City.
To state is also used in "to state it": to live in a luxurious or
ostentatious style; to live or behave as befits a person of high or higher rank.
Obs.1625 S. Purchas Pilgrimes IV. vi. ii. 1154, I will pry in the East and
West Indies rather then state it at home.
1655 T. Fuller Church-hist. Brit.
v. 178 Wolsey began to state it at York as high as ever before.
Killigrew Parsons Wedding iii. v, in Comedies & Trag. 120 What an ugly
Whore they have got! how she states it!
To state is also to settle or regulate by authority; to fix at a certain price or
amount. Obs.1647 N. Ward Simple Cobler Aggawam 28, I seriously feare, if the
pious Parliament doe not finde a time to state fashions,..God will hardly finde
a time to stateReligion or Peace.
1699 Poor Man's Plea against Price of
Corn 16 Suppose, for instance in the Southern parts of England,..Corn were
stated at 5s. per Bushel for Wheat.
1714 in J. H. Temple & G. Sheldon
Hist. Northfield, Mass. (1875) 133 The said Committee are further impowered to
state the place of the town upon small lots so as it may be made
1801 Asiatic Ann. Reg. 1800: Proc. Parl. 16/2 The Tanjore
subsidy is stated at something more than the receipt last year, on the
supposition that more will be realized from the assumed districts.
To state is also to make dependent on (also upon). Obs.1648
W. Montagu Miscellanea Spiritualia xiii. 159 Let them not think mercy is
intailed to the stock of their confidence, but stated upon the conformity and
fidelity of their lives.
1665 R. South Serm. preached before Covrt at
Christchurch Chappel 12 One of the grand duties of which [sc. religion] is
stated upon Repentance.
1671 J. Livingstone Let. 7 Oct. in Sel. Biogr.
(1845) I. 242 Persecution [is] bended against all who go not alongs in that
apostacie and perjury; and is not, then, suffering stated on as important a
quarrel as ever was since the foundation of the world?
To state is also, Prob.: to form or give an
opinion upon; to argue (a point). Obs. nonce-use.1671 Milton Samson Agonistes
424 Thou didst plead Divine impulsion prompting how thou might'st Find some
occasion to infest our Foes. I state not that; this I am sure; our Foes Found
soon occasion [etc.].
TO STATE IS ALSO, used transitively, to declare, present,
This is chiefly in philosophy and logic.
To formulate (a question, problem, etc.) in the correct or appropriate
Some quotations with paradigmatic usages:
1641 R. Montagu Acts & Monuments (1642) 110
First the question
is not rightly stated in the Conclusion.
1662 Bp. J. Taylor Via
We find by a sad experience, that few Questions are well
1680 Dryden in Dryden et al. tr. Ovid Epist. Pref. sig. a2v,
state it fairly, Imitation of an Authour is the most advantagious way for a
Translator to shew himself, [etc.].
1734 G. Berkeley Analyst 79
whatever readiness Analysts acquire in stating a Problem..doth necessarily infer
a proportionable ability in conceiving and expressing other Matters?
Gentleman's Mag. 65 ii. 543/2
Permit me to state a few queries to your
Correspondents in general.
1826 R. Whately Elements Logic i. 24
argument thus stated regularly and at full length, is called a
1869 J. Martineau Ess. Philos. & Theol. 2nd Ser. 6
problem must be stated in order to be solved.
1906 J. N. Keynes Formal
Logic (ed. 4) iii. i. 287
It is usual..to state the major premiss first and
the conclusion last.
1965 Texas Law Rev. 43 455
The problem of
international jus cogens can be stated in a simple question.
Symbolic Logic 67 741
A little more background is necessary before stating the
question and result.
To state may also be used to mean to state a (also one's) case and variants: to set out the facts of a suit or
plea for consideration by a court or other judicial authority. Also more
generally: to put forward an argument (cf. sense 9a).1641 J. Hales Way towards
Decision Church Govt. 35 It is very hard to state the case truly, according to
1692 Cal. Treasury Papers 265 Mr. Lowndes to state his
case to be laid before the King.
1710 J. Addison Whig Examiner No. 5. ⁋3,
I must observe, that the Advocates for this doctrine have stated the case in the
softest and most palatable terms that it will bear.
1857 Act 20 & 21
Vict. c. 43 §4 If the..justices be of opinion that the application is merely
frivolous..they may refuse to state a case.
1879 Act 42 & 43 Vict. c.
49 § 33 Any person aggrieved who desires to question a conviction..of a court
of summary jurisdiction..may apply to such court to state a special
1921 E. L. White Andivius Hedulio i. vi. 93, I essayed to state my
side of the case.
1953 H. Street Governmental Liability iv. 122 The
tribunal..makes a final decision subject to the right to state a case on a point
of law to the Court of Appeal.
1970 Observer 11 Oct. 32/3 On the young
left..there are those who refuse to state their case rationally.
Tel. (Nexis) 20 Apr. 20 A speech in London in which he bluntly stated the case
for more US troops.
To state is also to set out (a financial account) formally in terms of debit and credit. Later
also (Law): to agree (a financial account) between two parties; cf. account
stated at account n. Phrases 3f. Also fig.1648 C. Walker Relations &
Observ. i. 83 About the beginning of March, was given to Col. Sydenham and
Col. Bingham 1000 l. apiece, as part of their Arrears; their Accounts not yet
1690 Jrnl. House of Lords 27 Dec. 14 606/1 An Act for appointing
and enabling Commissioners to examine, take, and state, the Public Accompts of
1712 J. Arbuthnot Law is Bottomless-pit xi. 20 By comparing
and stating his Accompts, he discovered that..he had been egregiously
1718 Free-thinker No. 33. 2 After this, when he finds himself
most in Temper, let him coolly state the Accompts of his Love, by computing..the
Profits and the Losses.
1776 in West India Merchant (1778) 54 The method
of stating an account by a mercantile equation, pro and con.
Evangelical Guardian & Rev. Oct. 243 Posting their books, stating their
accounts, or preparing their goods for exposure to sale on the following
1885 Pacific Reporter 5 801 The very conclusion of fact which alone
would justify a suit for the recovery of an ascertained and admitted balance,
to-wit, that the parties had stated the account.
1903 Trenton (New Jersey)
Times 2 May 3/3 W. W. Swett..has stated his accounts and is awaiting the
decision of the Orphans' Court concerning disputed claims.
1927 H. L. Davis
in J. J. Marke Catal. Law Coll. N.Y. Univ. (1999) 252/2 To act as an arm of
the Court, in stating accounts between parties to suits.
Rev. 29 573/2 If balance sheet accounts are properly stated, the accounts in
the income statement are necessarily stated properly.
In mathematics, to state is to specify or arrange
(numbers, quantities, etc.) in a way that facilitates solving a problem. Cf.
sense 8a.1657 W. Leybourn Arithmetick, Vulgar, Decimal, & Instrumental
iii. 264 This and such like Questions..are best performed by the Double Rule
of three compounded of five numbers, wherefore the Question may be thus stated.
If 2s. 8 d. in three moneths, gains 2 d. what shall 100 li. gain in 11
1678 J. Hawkins Cocker's Arithm. xiv. 213 State the numbers as
is there Directed in the first order, viz._[table].
1797 Encycl. Brit. II.
302 In general, state the several particulars on which the question depends,
as so many simple proportions, [etc.].
1831 T. W. Conkling Young
Arithmetician's Guide 118 When coffee is purchased at 1½ cents per ounce, what
is 68lbs. worth at that rate? Stated thus; 1 oz. : 1½ cts :: 68 lbs. Examine
each term, make the first and third terms alike [etc.].
2008 K. A. Stroud
& D. J. Booth Linear Algebra 64 We use a simple row matrix in stating the
x- and y-coordinates of a point relative to the x- and y-axes.
In Scottish English, to state is to put forward (a
Parliamentary question) in the form in which a vote will be taken upon it; esp.
into state a vote. Obs.1677 Bp. G. Burnet Mem. Dukes of Hamilton 204 The
Marquis said, the Vote was to be stated, Obey or Not obey.
1700 D. Hume
Diary Parl. Scotl. (Bannatyne Club) 9 And then the vote came to be stated,
Whether the Parliament should proceed to the Sheriff's procedure, or the Lords'
their coming in, under these words Lords or Sheriff. Carried by one vote
1700 D. Hume Diary Parl. Scotl. (Bannatyne Club) 33 Then the
question was offered to be stated To allow the exportation..or Not.
J. Lauder Decisions (1761) II. 420 Then the vote was stated, If Sir Andrew
Kennedy's taking Conservator dues..was relevant to infer deprivation.
In music, to state is to present or introduce (a theme,
melody, etc.) in a composition. Also in extended use.1873 Musical Times 15
758/2 An expressive theme, first stated by the tenor, which is effectively
1911 C. V. Stanford Musical Composition vi. 91 A tyro will
more or less exhaust his inventive power in the first part, and find himself
gravelled after he hasstated his theme.
1944 W. Apel Harvard Dict. Music
285/1 It [sc. a figure] is based on a short melody, called ‘subject’ or
‘theme’, which is stated at the beginning of the figure by one voice
1960 G. Cooper & L. B. Meyer Rhythmic Struct. Music (1963) ii.
37 In the fourth Prelude, on the other hand, the accent is stated in the
2000 S. Broughton et al. World Music: Rough Guide II. i. 65/1 The
pallavi may be unfamiliar to the percussionist and the principal soloist
therefore states the theme.
To state is also to express in
speech or writing; to declare clearly, definitely, or formally (that which one
believes to be true); to put forward, proclaim, assert.
I.e. to state is to ASSERT.
Now the usual
With object and infinitive. Freq. in pass.
King Charles I Answer Bk. intituled Declar. Lords & Commons (new ed.) 7
The Message..is stated to be no other (even by that Declaration which reproved
Us) then a plain threat.
1700 J. Jones Myst. Opium Reveal'd viii. 45
Authors, who stated Opium to be a Diminisher or Disabler of the
1774 Ld. Mansfield in H. Cowper Rep. (1783) 170
He has stated it
to be in Minorca; with a videlicet.
1835 W. Kirby On Power of God in
Creation of Animals I. ii. 62
The ox of Surat is stated to have two of these
bosses or humps.
1846 Penny Cycl. Suppl. II. 502/2
The inhabitants, whose
number is stated not to exceed a thousand.
1912 Penn Germania Mar. 174/1
A note inserted in the beginning states it to contain copies of hymns by John
2009 Ireland's Eye Jan. 16/1
Eight demonstrators are stated to
be in a serious condition.
(b) With clause (esp.
that-clause) as object.
1655 J. Lightfoot Harmony New-Test. 195
states..that the election hath obtained, but the rest are blinded.
Harvey Dis. of London x. 130
It may be stated, that the intemperament of the
Blood, which is the parent of the Scorvey, is two-fold.
1768 W. Blackstone
Comm. Laws Eng. III. 221
An assise of nusance is a writ, wherein it is stated
that the party injured complains of some fact done.
1790 W. Paley Horæ
Paulinæ xv. 378
The subscription of the first epistle to the Corinthians
states that it was written from Philippi.
1838 S. Smiles Physical Educ.
Here we may state what is the scope and object of a proper physical
1850 W. E. Gladstone Giacomo Leopardi in Q. Rev. Mar. 332
may state that his father was known..to be a man of extreme opinions.
C. Thirlwall Let. 24 Aug. (1881) II. 77
Diego then stated that he was going to
the university of Salamanca.
1915 D. Haig Diary 2 Apr. in War Diaries
I received back a letter I had sent to the CGS stating what I
proposed to do in the way of exploding mines.
1940 Science 24 May 506/1
Von Baer makes quite clear his reason for stating that Purkinje's vesicle is
1972 Computer Jrnl. 15 200/2
One field..contains an entry stating
who is allowed to overwrite the file.
2008 A. A. Mosshammer Easter Computus
& Origins Christian Era (2009) xv. 339
Modern reference-works often state
that Dionysius dated the Nativity to December of the year 753 from the
foundation of Rome.
(c) With simple object.
Boyle Origine Formes & Qualities (ed. 2) 332
Themes, where the names that
are of very common and necessary use have (yet) their significations very little
stated or agreed on.
1702 Clarendon's Hist. Rebellion I. i. 17 It was
thought fit, that the whole Affair..should be stated and enlarged upon, in a
Conference between the two Houses.
1764 O. Goldsmith Traveller 19 Yet
think not thus, when Freedom's ills I state, I mean to flatter kings, or court
1810 Scott Let. 3 July (1932) II. 357 The only purpose which I
suppose Lord Lauderdale had in view was to state charges which could neither be
understood nor refuted.
1860 J. Tyndall Glaciers of Alps ii. i. 224 It
will not be a useless labour..to state..our present views of light and
1891 Law Times 90 463/1 The contents of the deed were falsely
1913 Mod. Lang. Notes 28 26/2 His relations to Virgil and to
Theocritus are stated only in rather general terms.
1956 H. L. Mencken
Minority Rep. 181 It is never possible for a metaphysician to state his ideas
in plain English.
1996 C. Higson Getting Rid of Mr Kitchen i. 10 You have
to be told. It's for your own good. I'm just stating the facts.
Yan & S. Nadis Shape Inner Space iii. 39 The goal of this approach,
broadly stated, is to exploit the powerful methods of analysis.
(d) With direct speech as object.1804 J. Duncumb Coll. Hist.
County Hereford I. 264 His lady, also, he stated, ‘had been restrained of her
liberty without cause’.
1817 Scott Rob Roy (1818) II. v. 113 ‘The
servants,’ he stated, ‘with the tenantry and others, had been all regularly
enrolled and mustered.’
1864 London Society Dec. 546/1 ‘I am well in
health,’ she stated in this letter.
1919 Business Digest 11 Nov. 539/2 Of
the terrible Salem fire the report states: ‘The fire lasted thirteen hours and
covered an area of 251 acres.’
1981 D. Anderson Rough Layout xx. 158 ‘It
was after the war, remember, when we really settled down together,’ Adele stated
2010 Independent 27 Apr. 23/2 He [sc. the writer Ian
McEwan] once stated: ‘I hate comic novels.’
To state is also to specify or quote (an amount, price, etc.).1658 W. Sanderson
Compl. Hist. Life King Charles 922 The House of Commons..urged them positively
to set down their sum... And had it stated to be no less then five hundred
1692 F. Atterbury Serm. Whitehall 1 The true Price of
Duties is there justly stated.
1789 New London Mag. July 370/2 Fifteen
thousand men effective are stated.
1823 R. Southey Hist. Peninsular War I.
373 The numbers of the Spanish army have been variously stated from 14,000 to
1854 Poultry Chron. 2 147 State your profession, especially if a
1902 F. Seebohm Tribal Custom in Anglo-Saxon Law i. 1 The
Anglo-Saxon wergelds were stated, with perhaps one exception, in silver
1940 Language 16 301 Collocation establishes categories by
stating the elements with which the element being studied enters into possible
2002 N. Wall External Infl. iv. 49 Any variations in prices
in different countries will be easily visible to consumers because they will all
be stated in euros.