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Wednesday, July 20, 2016

Grice on Aspects of Reasoning


In "Meaning" (first edition, but notably the second), S. R. Schiffer concentrates on what he calls a conceptual loop for Griceianism: if 'to mean' is analysed in terms of 'to intend', how do we provide an analysis of psychological attitudes that do NOT depend on mean?

The issue is delightfully complex, and has a lovely longitudinal unity, that Grice adored!



************ A *********************
Adams, M. "What Does Ockham Means by Supposition?" Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 17:

Adams writes:

"I focus on William Ockham's general account in "Summa Logicae" I, chapter 63, of what it is for a term to supposit for something in a proposition, and consider two interpretations of it."

"I first construe Ockham as offering the following nominal definition of 'supposition': (I) "Z" supposits for "X" in "P", if and only if "Z" is a term of "p" and 'this is "a"' (where 'this' indicates "x") is true, where general terms are substituted for '"a"'; names of substitutions for '"A"', for '"Z"'; names of propositions for '"P"'; and proper names for '"X"'. I argue that (I) is inadequate both as a definition of suppositing-in-some-way-or-other for something or of any particular kind of supposition. An alternative interpretation is to take Ockham as giving his general account of supposition when he says it is being posited for something in a proposition. On this interpretation, less problematic definitions of material and simple supposition are available. But the notion of being posited for, which is at least as obscure as the notion of supposition, is left unanalysed. On the first interpretation, this is the analysis that (I) is taken to provide."


Amerini, F Il Tractatus De Suppositionibus Terminorum Di Francesco Da Prato O.P. Una Rilettura Della Dottrina Ockhamista Del Linguaggio." Medioevo 25.


Apel, K Sprachliche Wahrheit Als Richtige Representation Der Wirklichkeit Durch Ein Zeichensystem (Ockhams Suppositionstheorie)." In Transformation Der Philosophie


Arens, Hans.  "Verbum Cordis. Zur Sprachphilosophie Des Mittelalters." Historiographia Linguistica no. 7
  1. Arnold, E Zur Geschichte Der Suppositiontheorie. Die Wurzeln Des Modernen Europäischen Subjektivismus." Symposion.Jahrbuch für Philosophie 3.
  2. Ashworth, E   "The Doctrine of Supposition in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries." Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophie 51.
    "It is often assumed that the logic of terms, including supposition theory, was despised and ignored by the logicians of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, in spite of the sophistication with which it had been developed during the later middle ages.
    (...) It is perhaps not surprising that when I looked at some eighty textbooks written during the period in question, I discovered that as many as twenty authors not only referred to the doctrine of supposition sympathetically, but usually went on to offer a detailed analysis which is neither a slavish nor an inept echo of what the mediaeval logicians had said."
  3. "Priority of Analysis and Merely Confused Supposition." Franciscan Studies 33
    Discussion of: Swiniarski "A new presentation of Ockham's theory of supposition with an evaluation of some contemporary criticism".
    "In this paper I criticize the argument put forward by Swiniarski that Ockham should have adopted the priority of analysis rule whereby the subject is analysed before the predicate, and that had he adopted such a rule, merely confused supposition would have become unnecessary. I point out that in later medieval logic explicit priority of analysis rules were adopted, whereby terms with determinate supposition were analysed first, whether they were subject or predicate. I also discuss the use made of merely confused supposition, particularly in the analysis of the relationship between "all A is B" and "only B is A"."
  4. "Multiple Quantification and the Use of Special Quantifiers in Early Sixteenth Century Logic." Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 19
  5. "In this paper I discuss two interrelated topics to do with supposition theory and the extensionalist analysis of propositions: 1) the use of 'A' and 'B' as special signs to produce respectively merely confused and determinate supposition in the terms following them; 2) the analysis of such non-standard propositions as 'there are some men all of whose donkeys are running.' In addition, I show how logicians in the medieval tradition handled such invalid inferences as 'every man has a head, therefore there is a head that every man has'."
  6. "Mental Language and the Unity of Propositions: A Semantic Problem Discussed by Early Sixteenth Century Logicians." Franciscan Studies 41
    "In the 14th century Gregory of Rimini argued that (1) there is a mental language separate from spoken language and (2) mental propositions are unified wholes with no discernible parts. This article examines the reactions of later logicians, showing that they accepted the doctrine of mental language; but argued that mental propositions must have a discernible structure, which involves parts."
  7. "The Structure of Mental Language: Some Problems Discussed by Early Sixteenth Century Logicians." Vivarium 20
    Reprinted in: Studies in post-medieval semantics.
    "Given their belief in mental language, late medieval logicians felt the need to give some account of its structure. I explore their different views on the part played by syncategorematic terms, impersonal and other verbs, demonstratives, pronouns, case, number and gender. I show that Ockham's views were not universally followed; and I argue that mental language was not necessarily thought of as an ideal logical language."
******* B **********
  1. Baccin, N. "Supposizione Confusa Tantum E Descensus." Medioevo 3
  2. Bazán, B. "La Signification Des Termes Communs Et La Doctrine De La Supposition Chez Maitre Siger De Brabant." Revue Philosophique de Louvain 35
    "Having as his principle objective the study of declarative propositions, of the predicative structure, Siger showed that the meaning of the general term is constant because it refers to changing things signified by the intermediary of the consignified concept. The "intelligible unity" of the essence grasped in the concept is the basis for the unity of the meaning relative to the "existential diversity" of things. The analysis of meaning appears insufficient when one takes into consideration the concrete symbolic function of the term at the centre of a given proposition. It is here that the doctrine of the "suppositio" comes into play. Essentially this doctrine distinguishes between the signifying function of the term and its completing function relative to the diversity of the predicates."
  3. Berger, H. "Simple Supposition in William of Ockham, John Buridan and Albert of Saxony." In Itinéraires D'albert De Saxe., edited by Biard, Joël, Paris: Vrin.
  4. Beuchot, M.  "La Teoría Semántica Medieval De La Suppositio." In Filosofía Y Cultura Medievales, edited by González, Ruiz E.,México: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
  5. ———.  "Albert De Saxe: La Supposition Sémantique Et Les Noms Vides." In Itinéraires D'albert De Saxe, edited by Biard, Joël,  Paris: Vrin.
  6. ———.  "La Suposición Semántica Y Su Actualidad. Desarrollo Histórico Y Actualidad De La Teória Escólastica De La Suposición Semántica." In Metafísica, Lógica Y Lenguaje En La Filosofía Medieval,  Barcelona: Promociones y Publicaciones Universitaria, S.A.
  7. Biard, Joël. 1997. "Intention Et Signification Chez Guillaume D'ockham. La Critique De L'être Intentionnel." In Langages Et Philosophie. Hommage À Jean Jolivet, edited by Libera, Alain de, Elamrani-Jamal, Abdelali and Galonnier, Alain, Paris: Vrin.
  8. ed. Le Langage Mental Du Moyen Âge À L'âge Classique. Paris: Vrin.
    "La connaissance du monde s'exprime en propositions, que celles-ci soient considérées, selon les théories, comme objets ou comme moyens de la science. Le problème de la relation entre ces entités linguistiques et les représentations mental (intellections, intentions, concepts...) a une longue histoire qui remonte au traité De l'interprétation d'Aristote et aux commentaires de Boèce. Après Guillaume d'Ockham, en effet, l'idée de langage mental est certes une hypothèse qui a acquis force et consistance, mais tous les problèmes liés à la structuration de la pensée et au rapport entre le langage parlé et la pensée ne sont pas résolus. Des questions surgissent sur la structuration même de ce langage.
    Le colloque organisé à Tours du 1er au 3 décembre 2005 sous les auspices de la Fondation européenne de la science (European Science Foundation) avait l'ambition de parcourir ces questions en repartant d'Augustin qui est l'initiale médiévale du problème, et en suivant cette histoire jusqu'à l'aube des Temps modernes. Ce parcours historique donc fait une part importante au Moyen Âge tardif, à la Renaissance et au XVIIe siècle. En même temps, notre ambition était aussi d'approfondir certains enjeux proprement philosophiques de ce parcours. L'horizon général est la question: est-il possible de considérer le domaine de la pensée comme étant structuré à la manière d'un langage, et par quels moyens conceptuels penser cela?"
    Table des Matières: Joël Biard: Présentation V; Isabelle Koch: Le verbum in corde chez Augustin 1; Bérangère Hurand: La locutio mentis: une version anselmienne du verbe intérieur 29; Cyrille Michon: Les représentations rendent-elles indirecte la connaissance des choses? 45; Irène Rosier-Catach: Une forme particulière de langage mental: la locutio angelica selon Gilles de Rome et ses contemporains 61; Russell Friedman: Mental Propositions before Mental Language 95; Claude Panaccio: Le jugement comme acte mental selon Guillaume d' Ockham 117; Simo Knuuttila: Ockham on Fallacies and Mental Language 135; Aurélien Robert: Les deux langages de la pensée. A propos de quelques réflexions médiévales 145; Joël Biard: Pierre d'Ailly: langage, concept, représentation 169; Paloma Pérez-Ilzarbe: Jeronimo Pardo on the unity of mental propositions 185; Henrik Lagerlind: John Mair on Concepts 205; Fosca Mariani Zini: Topique et argumentation dans le premier humanisme italien 221; Marie-Luce Demonet: Que reste-t-il du langage mental dans les textes philosophiques français à la fin de la Renaissance? 241; Martine Pécharman: De quel langage intérieur Hobbes est-il le théoricien? 265; Calvin Normore: The End of Mental Language 293; Jacob Schmutz: Quand le langage a-t-il cessé d'être mental? Remarques sur les sources scolastiques de Bolzano 307; Bibliographie 339; Index Nominum 359 - 364
  9. Boehner, P. "Ockham's Theory of Supposition and the Notion of Truth." Franciscan Studies no. 6:261-292.
    Reprinted in: Collected articles on Ockham (pp.237-267)
  10. ———. . "A Medieval Theory of Supposition." Franciscan Studies no. 18:240-289.
  11. Boh, Ivan. 1965. "Paul of Pergola on Supposition and Consequences." Franciscan Studies no. 25:30-89.
    Text, translation and commentary
  12. ———. 1966. "Propositional Connectives, Supposition and Consequence in Paul of Pergola." Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic no. 7:109-128.
  13. Boler, J. "Ockham's Mental Language (Abstract)." Journal of Philosophy no. 69:676-676.
  14. Bos, E. 1978. "Mental Verbs in Terminist Logic (John Buridan, Albert of Saxony, Marsilius of Inghen)." Vivarium no. 16:56-69.
  15. "La Théorie De La Signification De La Vox Significativa Ad Placitum (Nomen, Verbum, Oratio) Dans Les Introductiones Montane Maiores." In Gilbert De Poitiers Et Ses Contemporains Aux Origines De La Logica Modernorum., edited by Jolivet, Jean and Libera, Alain de, 73-90. Napoli: Bibliopolis.
    Actes du septième symposium européen d'histoire de la logique et de la sémantique médiévales. Centre d' études supérieures de civilisation médiévale de Poitiers 17 22 Juin 1985.
  16. "Speaking About Signs. Fourteenth-Century Views on Suppositio Materialis." Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik no. 48:71-86.
    "The principal questions in my paper are the following: How did the medieval semanticists indicate the autonymous use of words? Does the subject term in such a proposition express a linguistic item (itself, or its likes) because of the determination by the predicate? Or is it dependent on the will or intention of man, the voluntas utentium, as Ockham calls it?
    Or is it a convention that determines the use of terms? Is a signum materialitatis (a sign, or mark, indicating material supposition) necessary? To what extent do the Medievals distinguish the autonymous use of language from other uses? Or is this kind of language meaningless?
    There is hardly any secondary literature on this subject. (*)" p. 75
    (*) M. Bochenski, Formale Logik (München 1970 (1956). 188-193; CA. Dufour, Die Lehre der Proprietates Terrrunorum. Sinn und Referenz in mittelalterlicher Logik (München/Hamden/Vv'ien 1989). 172-188. (Dufour tries to reconstruct the medieval theory of the properties of terms with the help of modern formal logic. This very interesting study did not obtain the attention it deserves, I feel). E. Karger, 'La supposition matérielle comme supposition significative: Paul de Venise, Paul de Pergola', in English Logic in Italy in the 14th and 15th Centuries. Acts of the 5th European Symposium on Medieval Logic and Semantics, Rome, 10-14 november 1980, ed. by A. Maierù (Napoli). 331-342. In a penetrating analysis, Karger discusses the difficulties arising from the 'mentioning' of terms in relation to the general semantical theory of a philosopher.
  17. "Die Rezeption Der Suppositiones Des Marsilius Von Inghen in Paris (Johannes Dorp) Und Prag (Ein Anonymer Sophistriatraktat) Um 1400." In Philosophie Und Theologie Des Ausgehenden Mittelalters. Marsilius Von Inghen Und Das Denken Seiner Zeit, edited by Hoenen, Marten and Bakker, Paul J.J.M., 213-238. Leiden: Brill.
  18. ed. 2013. Medieval Supposition Theory Revisited. Studies in Memory of L. M. De Rijk. Leiden: Brill.
    Also published as Volume 51, 1-4 (2013) of Vivarium.
    Acts of the XVIIth European Symposium for Medieval Logic and Semantics, held the University of Leiden, 2nd, 7th June. 2008.
  19. "Richard Billingham's Speculum Puerorum, Some Medieval Commentaries and Aristotle." Vivarium no. 45:360-373.
    "In the history of medieval semantics, supposition theory is important especially in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. In this theory the emphasis is on the term, whose properties one tries to determine. In the fourteenth century the focus is on the proposition, of which a term having supposition is a part. The idea is to analyse propositions in order to determine their truth (probare). The Speculum puerorum written by Richard Billingham was the standard textbook for this approach. It was very influential in Europe. The theory of the probatio propositionis was meant to solve problems both in (empirically oriented) scientific propositions such as used by the Oxford Calculators, and theological propositions, especially those about the Trinity. The book is original, concise, but not clear in every respect. Studying medieval commentaries may help us to understand Richard's book. In the present paper three commentaries are presented. The commentators discussed problems about the status of Richard's book, and about its doctrine: what is the relation between probatio and truth, what is the relation between probatio and supposition, what exactly are mediate and immediate terms ( the pronoun 'this' mediate or immediate?). The commentators sometimes criticize Richard. For example, one of them argues, against Billingham, that the verb 'can' ampliates its subject term and is therefore mediate."
  20. Bottin, F "Linguaggio Mentale E Atti Di Pensiero in Guglielmo Di Ockham." Veritas.Revista de Filosofia no. 45:349-359.
    "William Ockham developed themes of epistemology which place him in position which can easily be compared to that of modern thinkers. Such is notably the case of his works on mental language, for instance, which bring him closer to certain theories elaborated by Hilary Putnam, especially his theory of representation."
  21. Filosofia Medievale Della Mente. Padova: Il Poligrafo.
  22. Brands, H. "Die Zweifache Einleitung Der Formalen Supposition Bei William of Sherwood." In Knowledge and the Sciences in Medieval Philosophy, edited by Knuuttila, Simo, Tyorinoja, R. and Ebbesen, Sten, 445-454.
    Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of medieval philosophy. Helsinki 24-29 August 1987. vol. II
  23. Brown, D. "The Puzzle of Names in Ockham's Theory of Mental Language." Review of Metaphysics no. 50:79-99.
    "In his writings on semantics and logic, William of Ockham combines two very strong claims about mental language: that mental terms are naturally prior to and determinative of the signification of conventional signs and that mental language contains neither synonymous nor equivocal terms. (1) The first claim represents the role mental language has in explaining the origins, structure, and content of thought and language. Ockham was, as many commentators have observed, a conceptual empiricist but it would be a mistake to think that he was primarily concerned with the psychological processes that underlie our representational system. The second claim indicates that the theory of mental language is primarily a theory of signification or a semantics. The notion of a redundancy-free mental language is an idealization crafted for its explanatory role in Ockham's semantics.
    The notion of a mental language devoid of synonymous and ambiguous terms raises puzzles which threaten the internal coherence of the project. These puzzles concern a species of categorematic terms in mental language, Ockham's absolute terms, and are not unlike the puzzles about proper names in Kripkean semantics. Although I am skeptical that Ockham's theory is adequate to the dual tasks of being a semantics as well as a psychological thesis, I shall argue that the wrong response to these puzzles is to forfeit the theory's status as a semantic theory by giving up the commitment to parsimony."
    (1) Ockham's most sustained development of the theory of mental language is in Summa Logicae I, in Opera Philosophica I, ed. Philotheus Boehner, Gedeon Gal, Stephen S. Brown (St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan Institute, 1974).
  24. Brown, S.  "Walter Burleigh's Treatise De Suppositionibus and Its Influence on William of Ockham." Franciscan Studies no. 32:15-64.
    "This early work of Walter Burleigh (written circa 1302), here edited, is one of the sources of Ockham's "Summa logicae". At times it supplies Ockham with material he adopts; at times it shares with the works of others the role of opposition. Also it is one of the sources which Ockham opposes in his 'commentary on the sentences'. In relation to earlier works of the 12th and 13th centuries it shows some technical advances while essentially holding onto the traditional teaching. Burleigh's later treatment of supposition in the 'de puritate' is a restatement of this early treatise in light of Ockham's 'Summa logicae' critique of the 'realist' position."
  25. "Gerard Odon's De Suppositionibus." Franciscan Studies no. 35:5-44.
    New edition by L. M. De Rijk as: Liber Secundum: De suppositionibus (pp. 231-292) in: Giraldus Odonis O. F. M. Opera Philosophica - volume one: Logica - Critical editions from the manuscripts - Leiden, Brill, 1997
  26. "Medieval Supposition Theory in Its Theological Context." Medieval philosophy and theology 3
    In appendix: Walter Chatton: Lectura in I Sent. 4
  27. "Gerald Odonis' Tractatus De Suppositionibus: What Is Suppositio Communicabilis?" Vivarium 47.
    "The Tractatus de suppositionibus, which is cited by Gerald Odonis in his commentary on the Sentences, probably dates from ca. 1315-25. In the Sentences commentary he refers to his treatment of 'suppositio communicabilis' and its species, indicating a type of supposition whose language seems new. This article attempts to find a source for it in contemporary authors and arrives at the conclusion that 'communicabilis' is simply a synonym for 'personalis', the most common form of supposition according to Odonis."
  28. Bubacz, Bruce S. 1985. "La Teoría De Lenguaje Interior En San Augustin Y En Guillermo De Occam." Augustinus.Revista trimestral publicada por los Agustinos recoletos no. 30:383-391.
  29. Burton, P. "Suppositio Naturalis" and the Truth Conditions of the Propositions of Demonstrative Science, The University of Texas at Austin.
    UMI Dissertation Express reference number 9105524.
  30. ********* C ************
  31. Carvalho, M "A Teoria Da Suppositio Na Semântica Ockhamista." Biblos no. 62:91-149.
  32. Chalmers, David. 1999. "Is There Synonymy in Ockham's Mental Language?" In The Cambridge Companion to Ockham, edited by Spade, Paul Vincent, 76-99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  33. Chiesa, C  "Le Problème Du Langage Intérieur Chez Les Stoiciens." Revue Internationale de Philosophie no. 178:301-321.
  34. . "Le Problème Du Langage Intérieur Dans La Philosophie Antique De Platon À Porphyre." Histoire, Épistémologie, Langage no. 14:15-30.
  35. Cocchiarella, N. "A Logical Reconstruction of Medieval Terminist Logic in Conceptual Realism." Logical Analysis and History of Philosophy no. 4:35-72.
    "The framework of conceptual realism provides a logically ideal language within which to reconstruct the medieval terminist logic of the 14th century. The terminist notion of a concept, which shifted from Ockham's early view of a concept as an intentional object (the fictum theory) to his later view of a concept as a mental act (the intellectio theory), is reconstructed in this framework in terms of the idea of concepts as unsaturated cognitive structures.
    Intentional objects (ficta) are not rejected but are reconstructed as the objectified intentional contents of concepts.
    Their reconstruction as intentional objects is an essential part of the theory of predication of conceptual realism. It is by means of this theory that we are able to explain how the identity theory of the copula, which was basic to terminist logic, applies to categorical propositions. Reference in conceptual realism is not the same as supposition in terminist logic. Nevertheless, the various "modes" of personal supposition of terminist logic can be explained and justified in terms of this conceptualist theory of reference."
  36. Corcoran, J and Swiniarski, J 1978. "Logical Structures of Ockham's Theory of Supposition." Franciscan Studies no. 38
    "This exposition of Ockham's theory of (common, personal) supposition involves the logical form of the four descent/ascent conditions and the logical relations of these with the three main modes of supposition. Central theses: each condition is a one-way entailment, each mode is a truth-functional combination of conditions, two of the three modes are not even coextensive with the two-way entailments commonly taken as their definitions. Ockham's idea of "the singulars" of a general proposition is vague and problematic and the entailment used in the descent/ascent conditions probably cannot be taken to be logical consequence in any strict sense."
  37. Corti, E Significación, Suposición Y Verdad En La Summa Logicae De Guillermo De Ockham." Cuadernos del Sur (14):
  38. Courtenay, W Force of Words and Figures of Speech. The Crisis over Virtus Sermonis in the Fourteenth Century." Franciscan Studies no. 44:107-128.
  39. Coxito, Amândio. 1981. Lógica, Semântica E Conhecimento Na Escolastica Peninsular Pré-Renascentista. Coimbra: Biblioteca Geral da Universidade.
    See Chapter VI. A teoria da "suppositio" pp. 201-241.
  40. Las Doctrinas De La Significatio Y De La Suppositio En Pedro Hispano." Pensamiento no. 45:227-238.
  41. ******** D *********
  42. Dafonseca. P A Teoria Da Suposição E O Seu Contexto Excolástico." Revista Filosofica de Coimbra no. 10:285-311.
  43. Dinneen, F Suppositio in Petrus Hispanus. Linguistic Theories and Models." In De Ortu Grammaticae. Studies in Medieval Grammar and Linguistics Theory in Memory of Jan Pinborg, edited by Bursill-Hall, Geoffrey L., Ebbesen, Sten and Koerner, Konrad, 69-85. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
  44. D'Ors, A De Mixta Suppositione." In Meeting on Logic and Philosophy of Science. Madrid 13-15 November 1991. Rudolf Carnap and Hans Reichenbach in Memoriam, 73-81. Madrid: Comunicaciones.
  45. Ducrot, O "Quelques Implications Linguistiques De La Théorie Médiévale De La Supposition." In History of Linguistic Thought and Contemporary Linguistics, edited by Parret, Herman, 189-227. Berlin New York: Walter de Gruyter.
  46. Dufour, C Die Lehre Der Proprietates Terminorum. Sinn Und Referenz in Mittelaterlicher Logik, Analytica. Munchen, Hamden, Wien: Philosophia Verlag.
    "The present volume is a detailed and original study of the traditional, doctrine of terms. It can be regarded as an attempt to tackle the question: ,How would the scholastic philosophers have conceived and defended their doctrine bad they bad at their disposal the methods and techniques of contemporary logic and semantics? The answer provided, a systematic reconstruction of a number of important ideas in the history of logic, is both formally illuminating and entirely faithful to the relevant text.
    The work begins with a general exposition of the doctrine of terns oriented around the basic semantic opposition between significatio and suppositio, analogues of the more familiar notions of sense and reference.
    As a means of providing a precise and coherent reconstruction of the doctrine the author does not simply provide the predictable translation of the more amenable passages into the language of predicate logic. Rather he develops, on the basis of a careful systematization of the texts themselves, a formalization of his own, incorporating an ontology of substance and accident. The advantages of this approach are revealed in its capacity to provide both a simple reconstruction of syllogistic logic by means of a sequent-calculus and a natural extension of this logic to a theory of supposition.
    Taking into consideration the categories of substance and accident in place of the more usual apparatus of set and element allows the author to develop a formalized theory of objects in which the two categories are allowed to yield composite objects of various sorts. This makes possible an illuminating application of the theory of concreta and abstracta (square of permutations) both to the theory of ampliatio and appellatio and to modal syllogistics.
    The work concludes with a sketch of possible further developments and an attempted demonstration of the philosophical relevance of the theory in the light of a critical consideration of the relevant secondary literature."
  47. ********* E ***********
  48. Ebbesen, S "The Dead Man Is Alive." Synthese no. 40:43-70.
    "English late 13th century logicians paid greater attention to the reference (suppositio) of terms than contemporary Parisian logicians ('modistae'), who concentrated on the unchangeable meaning (significatio) allotted to terms by 'impositio'. Discussions of the sophism 'this is a dead man, therefore this is a man' revealed weaknesses in modism and contributed to the 14th century acceptance of ockham-style suppositio semantics at Paris (Buridan & al.). Appendix contains texts by Radulphus Brito and two anonymi."
  49. "Early Supposition Theory (12th-13th Century)." Histoire, Épistémologie, Langage no. 3 Reprinted in: S. Ebbesen, Topics in Latin Philosophy from the 12th-14th centuries. Collected Essays Volume 2, Aldershot, Ashgate,
    "The theory of supposition with the associated theories of copulatio (sign-capacity of adjectival terms), ampliatio (widening of referential domain), and distributio constitute one of the most original achievements of Western medieval logic. There is nothing really similar in any ancient text the medievals knew -though surely some Stoic writings once contained investigations of the problems these theories deal with -- nor had contemporary Byzantium anything similar.
    The twelfth century produced a considerable harvest of rules about the referential range of terms in various contexts. When the 13th century arrived, a standard terminology had prevailed with such names as suppositio confusa and suppositio determinata for some particularly important types of referential range and a chapter on supposition had become a standard feature of Introductions to Logic (summulae). But then the development of the theory stopped. It appears that at least on the Continent, the chapter on supposition in the summulae became one that young students would be taught very early in their career, perhaps before entering university; and then forget all about through the rest of their student career.
    In this paper I shall refrain from listing treatises 'de suppositionibus'; I shall on the whole refrain from following the developments of terminology and systematics. The spade-work in those fields has been done by De Rijk in his Logica Modernorum.
    I >will try to point to and explain some characteristic features of 12th and early 13th speculation about supposition without going into details and without paying much attention to the opinions of individual authors, not even when they protest they disagree with something I say they thought. I am not looking for the particular, but for general attitudes and patterns of thought underlying their investigation of suppositio."
  50. Enders, H Sprachlogische Traktate Des Mittelalters Und Die Semantikbegriff: Ein Historisch-Systematischer Beitrag Zur Frage Der Semantischen Grundlegung Formaler Systeme, Veröffentlichungen Des Grabmann-Institutes Zur Erforschung Der Mittelarterlichen Theologie Und Philosophie. Paderborn: Verlag Ferdinand Schöning.
  51. ******** F *********
  52. Ferrer, V De Supposicionibus Dialectices." In Oeuvres De Saint Vincent Ferrer. (First Volume). Paris.
    See now the critical edition edited by John Allen Trentam 1977 (listed below)
  53. Tractatus De Suppositionibus. Stuttgart: Frommann-Holzborg.
    Critical edition with an introduction (pp. 11-86) by John Allen Trentman
  54. Fitzgerald, M Supposition and Signification. An Examination of Ockham's Theory of Reference, Ph. D. Dissertation Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey (New Brunswick).
  55. Forcada, V Momento Historico Del Tratado De Suppositionibus De San Vincente Ferrer." Escritos del Vedat:37-89.
  56. Freddoso, Alfred J. 1979. "O-Propositions and Ockham's Theory of Supposition." Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic no. 20:741-750.
  57. Freitas, A La Teoria De La Suposición En Pedro Hispano." Revista Venezolana de Filosofia 39.
  58. ******** G **********
  59. Galonnier, A Le De Grammatico Et L'origine De La Théorie Des Propriétés Des Termes." In Gilbert De Poitiers Et Ses Contemporains, edited by Jolivet, Jean and Libera, Alain de, 353-375. Napoli: Bibliopolis.
  60. Garcia J La Teoría De La Suposición En Los Tratados Filosóficos De San Vicente Ferrer." In Excerpta E Dissertationibus in Philosophia, 325-349. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Navarra.
    Abstract of the Ph.D: thesis presented at the University of Navarra
  61. La Paradojia Del Análisis Linguistico En La Lógica De San Vicente Ferrer." In Actas Del I Congreso Nacional De Filosofía Medieval, Saragosse, 12-14 December 1990, edited by Lomba Fuentes, J.M., 315-323. Saragosse, Ibercaja.
  62. Aspectos Gnoseológicos De La Suppositio Naturalis De San Vicente Ferrer." Analogía Filosófica.Revista de Filosófia no. 7:153-167.
    "The comparison between "suppositio naturalis" by Pedro Hispano and Vincent Ferrer, clearly shows us the gnoseological differences underlining the theory of one supposition from the other. Vincent Ferrer speaks of a "moderate realism" as seen by Thomas Aquinas; Ferrer proposes a new notion and classification of the "suppositio naturalis" which helps to solve some of the logical-semantic problems raised by the theory of supposition by Pedro Hispano."
  63. Hacia Una Semantica Realista. La Filosofía Del Lenguaje De San Vicente Ferrer. Pamplona: Eunsa.
  64. Una Fuente Inédita De La Teoría De La Suposición En Vicente Ferrer: La Polémica Burleigh-Ockham." Revista Española de Filosofía Medieval no. 5.
    "The 14th century controversy between William of Ockham and Walter Burleigh led to the publication of autonomous treatises on the theory of supposition, such as William Sutton's Textus de Suppositionibus. Significant parallels may be found between this treatise and the Tractatus de Suppositionibus of Vincent Ferrer; such coincidences lead to the formulation of the hypothesis of a direct influence of Sutton on Ferrer."
  65. ************************************
  66. Geach, P. Mental Acts: Their Content and Their Objects. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul. Section 23 (pp. 101-106) is on Ockham's the theory of mental language.
  67. Reference and Generality. An Examination of Some Medieval and Modern Theories. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
    Second emended editon 1968; third revised and expanded edition 1980.
  68. "Distribution and Suppositio." Mind no. 84:432-435.
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  70. H. Gelber, I Cannot Tell a Lie. Hugh Lawton's Critique of Ockham on Mental Language." Franciscan Studies no. 44:141-179.
    "The article describes the evolution of Ockham's theory of mental language and its impact on three of his dominican contemporaries at oxford: Hugh Lawton, William Crathorn and Robert Holcot, and its impact at Paris on the works of Gregory of Rimini and Pierre d'Ailly. Hugh Lawton's critical response to Ockham relied on a liar-like paradox to show that mental language would preclude the ability to lie. Crathorn devised an alternative to Ockham's theory in reaction, whereas Holcot defended Ockham's views. At Paris, the debate suggested a solution to the liar paradox to Gregory of Rimini."
  71. Giacon, C La Suppositio in Guglielmo Di Occam E Il Valore Reale Delle Scienze." In Arts Libéraux Et Philosophie Au Moyen Âge, 939-947. Montréal, Paris: Vrin.
    Actes du quatrième Congrés international de philosophie médiévale. Université de Montréal, Montréal, Canada. 27 Août - 2 Septembre 1967
  72. Gibson, Joan. 1976. The Role of Mental Language in the Philosophy of William of Ockham, Ph. D. Dissertation, University of Toronto.
  73. GRICE, Herbert Paul. Aspects of reasoning.
  74. GRICE, H. P. Meaning

  75. GRICE, Meaning (1948)
  76. GRICE, Logic and Conversation
  77. GRICE, Prejudices and predilections, which become the life and opinions of Paul Grice.
  78. GRICE, H. P. Method in philosophical psychology.
  79. GRICE, H. P. The conception of value.
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  81. Henry, D. "The Early History of Suppositio." Franciscan Studies no. 23:205-212.
  82. "Ockham, Suppositio, and Modern Logic." Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic no. 5:290-292.
  83. . "Suppositio and Significatio in English Logic." In English Logic and Semantics from the End of the Twelfth Century to the Time of Ockham and Burleigh., edited by Braakhuis, Henk A.G. and Kneepkens, Corneille Henry, 361-387. Nijmegen: Ingenium Publishers.
  84. Hülsen, R "Understanding the Semantics of "Relativa Grammaticalia". Some Medieval Logicians on Anaphoric Pronouns." In Reference and Anaphoric Relations, edited by Heusinger, Klaus von and Egli, Urs, 31-46. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

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  86. Inciarte, F Die Suppositionstheorie Und Die Anfänge Der Extensionalen Semantik." In Antiqui Und Moderni. Traditionbewusstsein Und Fortschrittsbewusstsein Im Späten Mittelalter, edited by Albert, Zimmermann, 126-141. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.
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  1. Kann, C "Zur Suppositionstheorie Alberts Von Sachsen." In Knowledge and the Sciences in Medieval Philosophy, edited by Knuuttila, Simo, Tyorinoja, R. and Ebbesen, Sten, 512-520. Helsinki: Yliopistopaino.
    Proceedings of the Eight International Congress of Medieval Philosophy, Helsinki 24-29 August 1987. (Vol. II).
  2. "Materiale Supposition Und Die Erwähnung Von Sprachzeichen." In Neue Realitäten. Herausforderung Der Philosophie. Xvi. Deutscher Kongress Für Philosophie 20.-24. September 1993, Tu Berlin Sektionsbeiträge I, 231-238.
  3. Die Eigenschaften Der Termini: Eine Untersuchung Zur Perutilis Logica Alberts Von Sachsen, Studien Und Texte Zur Geistesgeschichte Des Mittelalters. Leiden, New York: E. J. Brill.
    With the Latin edition of Perutilis Logica. Tractatus Secundus. De suppositionibus terminorum (pp. 167-265)
  4. Karger, E "Conséquences Et Inconséquences De La Supposition Vide Dans La Logique D'ockham." Vivarium no. 16:46-55.
  5. "La Supposition Matérielle Comme Supposition Significative: Paul De Venise, Paul De Pergola." In English Logic and Semantics from the End of the Twelfth Century to the Time of Ockham and Burleigh, edited by Braakhuis, Henk A.G. and Kneepkens, Corneille Henry, 331-341. Nijmegen: Ingenium Publishers.
  6. "Modes of Personal Supposition. The Purpose and Usefulness of the Doctrine within Ockham's Logic." Franciscan Studies no. 44:87-106.
  7. "Une Définition De La Supposition Par Guillaume D'ockham Et Sa Reprise Par Albert De Saxe." In Itinéraires D'albert De Saxe, edited by Biard, Joël, 51-69. Paris: Vrin.
  8. "Théories De La Pensée, De Ses Objects Et De Son Discours Chez Guillaume D'occam." Dialogue.Canadian Philosophical Review no. 33:437-456.
  9. "Mental Sentences According to Burley and to the Early Ockham." Vivarium no. 34:192-230.
  10. Kaye, S "Later Medieval Nominalism and the Politics of Supposition." Eidos.The Canadian Graduate Journal of Philosophy no. 14:29-50.
    "The salient dispute between realists and nominalists of the fourteenth century concerns the metaphysics of supposition. Do general terms stand for extra-mental universals or not? By answering in the affirmative, Walter Burley loses his ability to provide a plausible account of indefinite promises such as "I promise you a horse." By answering in the negative, Ockham not only explains indefinite promises, but also paves the way for a conception of the faith community more revolutionary than Protestantism. In the Bible, Jesus promises his disciples that he will be with them "always, to the end of the age." In Ockham's view, this is an indefinite promise parallel to the case of the horse; it means "I promise you a Christian." According to this analysis, the universal church can survive in a single, unlikely, and even unknown, individual. Ockham thereby undermines the doctrine of papal infallibility as well as institutional religion itself."
  11. Kelley, F "Some Observations on the Fictum Theory in Ockham and Its Relation to Hervaeus Natalis." Franciscan Studies no. 38:260-282.
  12. Klima, G "Existence and Reference in Mediaeval Logic." In New Essays in Free Logic, edited by Morscher, Edgar and Hieke, Alexander, 197-226. Dodrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
  13. . "Semantic Complexity and Syntactic Simplicity in Ockham's Mental Language." In.
  14. . "Tradition and Innovation in Medieval Theories of Mental Representation." Proceedings of the Society for Medieval Logic and Metaphysics no. 4:4-11.
  15. Knabenschuch S "La Téoria De La Supósicion Y Los Idiomas Modernos." Revista de Filosofia (Venezuela):75-99.
  16. Kneepkens, C "Suppositio and Supponere in 12th Century Grammar." In Gilbert De Poitiers Et Ses Contemporains. Aux Origines De La "Logica Modernorun", edited by Jolivet, Jean and Libera, Alain de, 325-351. Napoli: Bibliopolis.
    Actes du septième symposium européeen d'histoire de la logique et de la sémantique médiévales. Centre d'Etudes Supérieures de Civilisation Médiévale de Poitiers. Poitiers 17-22 jiun 1985
  17. "Erfurt, Amol Q 70a: A Questiones-Commentary on the Second Part of Alexander De Villa Dei's Doctrinale." Vivarium:26-54.
    "In this paper it is argued that the Quaestiones-Commentary on Alexander de Villa Dei's Doctrinale in the manuscript Arfurt, Ampl. Q.70a is part of the conceptualist grammatical tradition of the late 14th century. A characteristic feature of this theory is the absolute primacy of mental language to spoken or written language. An edition of the first question has been appended."
  18. Knudsen, C. "Ein Ockhamkritischer Text Zu Signifikation Und Supposition Und Zum Verhältnis Von Erster Und Zweiter Intention." Cahiers de l'Institut du Moyen-Age Grec et Latin no. 14:1-26.
  19. Kraml, H "Supposition Und Wahrheit." In Entwicklungslinien Mittelalterlicher Philosophie, edited by Leibold, Gerhard and Löffler, Winfried, 222-231. Wien: Hölder-Pichler-Tempsky.
    Entwicklungslinien mittelalterlicher Philosophie. Vorträge des V. Kongresses der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Philosophie, Teil II.
  20. Kunze, P Satzwahrheit Und Sprachliche Verweisung. Walter Burleighs Lehre Von Der Suppositio Termini in Auseinandersetzung Mit Der Mittelalterlichen Tradition Und Der Logik William of Ockham. Ph. D. University of Freiburg
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  22. Lagerlund, H "What Is Singular Thought? Ockham and Buridan on Singular Terms in the Language of Thought." In Mind and Modality. Studies in the History of Philosophy in Honour of Simo Knuuttila, edited by Hirvonen, Vesa, Holopainen, Toivo and Tuomine, Miira, 217-238. Leiden: Brill.
  23. ed Representation and Object of Thought in Medieval Philosophy. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  24. Lenz, M Mentale Sätze. Wilhelm Von Ockhams Thesen Zur Sprachlichkeit Des Denkens. Stuttgart: Franz Steiner Verlag.
  25. "Oratio Mentalis Und Mentalesisch. Ein Spätmittelalterlicher Blick Auf Die Gegenwärtige Philosophie Des Geistes." In 'Herbst Des Mittelalters'? Fragen Zur Bewertung Des 14. Und 15. Jahrhunderts, edited by Aertsen, Jan A. and Pickavé, Martin, 105-130. New York: De Gruyter.
  26. Libera, A "Supposition Naturelle Et Appellation: Aspects De La Sémantique Parisienne Au Xiii Siècle." Histoire, Épistémologie, Langage no. 3 (1):63-77.
  27. "La Logique Médiévale Et La Théorie De La Supposition." Travaux d'Histoire des Théories Linguistiques no. 1:31-57.
  28. "Suppositio Et Inclusio Dans Les Théories Médiévales De La Référence." In La Référence. Actes Du Colloque De Saint-Cloud, Ecole Nomale Supérieure De Saint-Cloud, 12-13 Octobre 1984, edited by Danon-Boileau, Laurent and Libera, Alain de, 9-62. Paris: Ophrys.
  29. Loux, M "Significatio and Suppositio. Reflections on Ockham's Semantics." New Scholasticism no. 53:407-427.
    "In this paper, I examine Ockham's views on "significatio" and "suppositio" in the light of pre-ockhamistic terminist treatments of these notions. What I try to show is that Ockham's views here are not simply nominalistic variants on traditional terminist themes. While conceding that Ockham's nominalism is central in his theory of terms, i try to locate the "semantical" underpinnings of his views on "significatio" and "suppositio". What I suggest is that Ockham's account deviates from those of his predecessors in taking the notion of standard reference or personal "suppositio" as conceptually prior to the notion of meaning or "significatio", and I conclude that perhaps a rejection of the atomistic semantics of his predecessors motivates this revision of the traditional theory of terms."
  1. Maierù, Alfonso.  Terminologia Logica Della Tarda Scolastica. Roma: Edizioni dell'Ateneo.
  2. The chapter "Confusio" (pp. 217-270) has been reprinted in: Frediga Riccardo and Puggioni Sara (eds.) "Logica e linguaggio nel Medioevo" - LED 1993 pp. 259-294
  3. . "A Propos De La Doctrine De La Supposition En Théologie Trinitaire Au Xiv Siécle." In Medieval Semantics and Metaphysics. Studies Dedicated to L. M. De Rijk, edited by Bos, Egbert Peter, 221-238. Nijmegen: Ingenium Publishers.
  4. "Il Linguaggio Mentale Tra Logica E Grammatica Nel Medioevo: Il Contesto Di Ockham." In Momenti Di Storia Della Logica E Di Storia Della Filosofia. Atti Del Convegno Di Roma (9-11 Novembre 1994), edited by Guetti, Carla and Puja, Roberto, 69-94. Roma: Aracne Editrice.
  5. "Linguaggio Mentale E Sincategoremi Nel Secolo Xiv." In Chemins De La Pensée Médiévale. Études Offertes À Zénon Kaluza, edited by Bakker, Paul J.J.M., Faye, Emmanuel and Grellard, Christophe, 3-25. Turnhout: Brepols.
  6. . "Mental Language and Italian Scholasticism in the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries." In John Buridan and Beyond: Topics in the Language Sciences, 1300-1700, edited by Friedman, Russell and Ebbesen, Sten, 33-67. Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzel.
    "Italian universities of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries took part in the scholastic debate concerning mental language, which first arose at the universities in Oxford and Paris in the early fourteenth century. Peter of Mantua (d. 1400) and Paul of Venice (d. 1429) were the prominent Italian masters in this respect; their opinions continued to be cited at the European universities of the early modern period. Two main conclusions are reached here: that there is an obvious continuity between medieval and modern ideas concerning mental language; and that further research is needed in order to establish the respective roles of Paris and Oxford in the development of the debate at the beginning of the fourteenth century."
  7. Malcolm, John. 1977. "On the Disappearance of Copulatio as a Property of a Term." Franciscan Studies no. 37:120-138.
  8. Markosian, Ned. 1988. "On Ockham's Supposition Theory and Karger's Rule of Inference." Franciscan Studies no. 48:40-52.
    "Elizabeth Karger has suggested an interpretation of Ockham's theory of the modes of common personal supposition ("TM") according to which the purpose of TM is to provide certain distinctions that Ockham will use in formulating a unified theory of immediate inference among certain kinds of sentences. Karger presents a single, powerful rule of inference that incorporates TM distinctions and that is meant to codify Ockham's theory of immediate inference. I raise an objection to Karger's rule, thereby calling into doubt the interpretation of Ockham that is based on attributing that rule to him."
  9. Matthews, Gareth. 1964. "Ockham's Supposition Theory and Modern Logic." Philosophical Review no. 73:91-99.
    Reprinted in Inquires into medieval philosophy. A collection in honor of Francis P. Clarke. Edited by J. F. Ross, Wesport, Greenwood 1971 pp. 131-140.
    "Philotheus Boehner's "Medieval logic" gives the impression that medieval supposition theory and modern quantification theory agree on their interpretation of particular propositions but differ on their interpretation of universal propositions. Matthews shows that this impression is mistaken: they differ on both particular and universal propositions, and the basic reason is that the medievals quantify over terms while modern logicians quantify over variables."
  10. "Suppositio and Quantification in Ockham." Noûs no. 7:13-24.
    "This paper is a discussion of the idea that the doctrine of "descent to singulars" in the supposition theory of William of Ockham constitutes a rudimentary theory of quantification. It is here argued that the doctrine applies to propositions of the logical forms, 'no S is P' and 'some S is not P', only in case each of their terms is nonempty. It is urged in conclusion that a doctrine whose application is restricted in this way is not a quantification theory at all, not even a rudimentary one."
  11. "A Note on Ockham's Theory of Modes of Common Personal Supposition." Franciscan Studies no. 44:81-96.
  12. . "Two Theories of Supposition?" Topoi no. 16 (1):35-40.
    "In a recent paper Paul Vincent Spade suggests that, although the medieval doctrine of the modes of personal supposition originally had something to do with the rest of the theory of supposition, it became, by the 14th century, an unrelated theory with no question to answer. By contrast, I argue that the theory of the modes of personal supposition was meant to provide a way of making understandable the idea that a general term in a categorical proposition can be used to refer to the individual things that fall under it. Once that idea had been made acceptable, truth conditions for the various forms of categorical proposition could be given without any specific appeal to the ideas of descent and ascent in terms of which the modes had been defined."
  13. Maurer, A 1981. "William of Ockham on Language and Reality." In Miscellanea Mediaevalia, edited by Beckmann, Jan P., 795-802. New York: de Gruyter.
    Translated in Italian in: Logica e linguaggio nel medieoevo - Edited by Fedriga Riccardo and Puggioni Sara
  14. Meier-Oeser, S. "Thinking as Internal Speaking: Some Remarks on the Conceptual Changes in the Relation between Language and Thinking from Middle Ages to Condillac." In Signs and Signification. Vol. I, edited by Gill, Harjeet Singh and Manetti, Giovanni, 175-194. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.
  15. "The Meaning of 'Significatio' in Scholastic Logic." In Signs and Signification. Vol. Ii, edited by Gill, Harjeet Singh and Manetti, Giovanni, 89-107. New Delhi: Bahri Publications.
    "Studies in scholastic theories of signification usually focus on what Roger Bacon (De signis: 132) has called the "difficilis dubitatio utrum vox significet species apud animam an res" (the difficult question, whether spoken words signify mental concepts or things), or, in Scotus' words (Ordinatio, vol. 6: 97), the "magna altercatio... de voce, utrum sit signum rei vel conceptus" (the great altercation, whether the spoken word is a sign of the thing or of the concept). But as interesting and important this question may be, it covers just one aspect of the numerous and complex problems linked with the scholastic concept of 'significatio'. For since scholastic terminology generally made a clear cut distinction between 'significatio' and 'significatum', the two questions, what words signify (or what their significatum is), and what signification itself may be, lead in different directions. By leaving aside the former question, I shall concentrate on the latter.
    The question about meaning or signification is deemed, especially since the 'linguistic turn', to be one of the most fundamental questions, philosophy has to account for. Of course, it is by no means a recent question. And yet it is, in a specific sense, not as old as one might suggest. It may be controversial, whether the problem of meaning ('Bedeutungsproblem'), as Weisbergerer (1930:17f) has stated, did not matter in classical Greek philosophy, or, as Cassirer (1925: 86) has claimed, already for Plato made up the "starting point of philosophy", whether Aristotle in the first chapter of his Peri hermeneias had offered "not even a sketch of a general theory of meaning" (Kretzmann 1974:5), or at least the "rudiments of a semantic theory" (Weidemann 1982). What has to be noticed, is, that the very term and concept of signification had not yet become a problem in classical Greek philosophy -- and could not even have been as such, due to the simple fact, that a concept of meaning or signification in a terminological sense did not exist. Indeed, the word or linguistic sign (semainon) was said to signify or mean something (semainei ti) and speech (logos) was characterised as significative (semantikós). But whereas in modern translations this is usually expressed in terms of words having meaning. there is, as far as I can see, at least in classical Greek no equivalent noun for 'meaning' or 'Bedeutung'. The history of terminology shows, that the corresponding Greek noun of the latin 'significatio' was semasia'. But the earliest evidence for the use of 'semasia' in the sense of meaning (of a word) seems to be a passage in the De signis, written by the Epicurean Philodemus of Gadara around the middle of the first century. In all earlier occurrences this term means 'sign' or 'signal' or an act of signalising (cf Ebert 1987:108sq.).
    So it seems as if semantics is not necessarily in need of the concept of signification or meaning. Because for quite a long time philosophy did not even have a word for it. But once introduced, it could give rise to such problems, as, referring to the concept of meaning, Charles Morris (1971:95) has pointed out by noticing that " 'meaning' signifies any and all phases, of sign-processes (the status of being a sign, the interpretant, the fact of denoting, the significatum)".
    By considering the meaning of 'significatio' in scholastic logic, I do not intend to give a comprehensive outline of the various theories of signification that have been worked out by that tradition, but rather want to confine myself to the more modest purpose of giving an account of the use of that term in scholastic logic. So, even if the title of my paper seems to offend the Wittgenstein's prominent advice "don't ask for meaning, ask for use", I will observe it insofar, as I am going to take a look at the concrete use of 'meaning' or rather 'signification' in scholastic logic, which however, as we shall see, not quite the same. By so doing, I do not intend to establish something like the scholastic meaning of signification. For if we are told by Wittgenstein and many others, that "the meaning of a word is its use in language", we will be confronted here with the fact, that the usage of 'significatio' -- and thus its 'meaning' -- is highly divergent in itself."
    Bibliographic references:
    Cassirer, E. 1925. Die Philosophie der Griechen, in: M. Dessoir (ed.): Lehrbuch der Philosophie (Berlin).
    Ebert, Th. 1987. The origin of the Stoic theory of signs in Sextus Empiricus, Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy 5, 83-126.
    Kretzmann, N. 1974. Aristotle on Spoken Sound Significant by Convention, in: J. Corcoran (ed.): Ancient Logic and Its Modern Interpretation (Dordrecht, Boston) 3-21.
    Morris C. W. 1971. Signs, Language and Behavior, in: Writings on the general 'Theory of Signs (The Hague).
    Weidemann, H. 1982. Ansatze zu einer semantischen Theorie bei Anstoteles: Zeitschrift fur Semiotik 4, 241-257.
    Weigerber, L. 1930. Sprachwissenschaft und Philosophie zum liedeutungsproblem, in: Blatter fur Deutsche Philosophie 4.
  16. "Mental Language and Mental Representation in Late Scholastic Logic." In John Buridan and Beyond: Topics in the Language Sciences, 1300-1700, edited by Friedman, Russell and Ebbesen, Sten, 237-265. Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzel.
    "Traditionally the two main paradigms for describing and explaining processes of thought and mental representation have been thought as image and thought as language. Whereas in present-day debates these paradigms are treated as mutually exclusive, in scholastic theories of cognition and mental language they were often amalgamated in various ways. By tracing pertinent discussions from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries, the article points to some consequences of this amalgamation both for the notions of image and of likeness and for approaches to thought as language."
  17. Miller, Barry. 1973. "Proper Names and Suppositio Personalis." Analysis no. 33:133-137.
    "The question is whether a proper name (e.g., "Tom") may be used in a way that parallels that of "man" in "man is a species". "Tom is an individual" is the answer proposed, with "individual" functioning as a second order term. A number of difficulties are resolved by showing that "Tom is an individual" may be rendered as "a man is (in English) called 'Tom' and is so constituted that only he may without ambiguity be called 'Tom'. This shows that "Tom" in "Tom is an individual" is neither purely a first order nor purely a second order term."
  18. Miralbell, I. "La Transformación Ockhamista De La Teoría De La Suposición." Sapientia no. 44:111-136.
    Reprinted in: Guillermo de Ockham y su crítica lógico-pragmática al pensamiento realista pp. 51-88
  19. Morujão, C "A Logica Modernorum: Lógica E Filosofia Da Linguagem Na Escolástica Dos Séculos Xiii E Xiv." Revista Filosofica de Coimbra no. 14:301-322.
    "This essay approaches two of the main contributions of medieval logic to the history of logic and the philosophy of language: the doctrine of suppositio and that of consequentiae. The aim here is to demonstrate that although medieval logic depended on the syntactical structure of Latin, authors managed to reach a high level of understanding regarding strictly logical problems, not only anticipating some theories from modern semantics, but also predicate calculus and sentential calculus. This research, especially after the 13th century, developed in complete isolation from Aristotelian logic, particularly its doctrines of syllogism and declarative sentence. It also revealed enormous originality and creativity regardless of the contribution that stoic logic known from the works of Cicero and Boethius may have had.
  20. Müller, H Die Lehre Vom Verbum Mentis in Der Spanischen Scholastik. Untersuchungen Zur Historischen Entwicklung Und Zum Verständnis Dieser Lehrer Bei Toletus, Den Conimbricensern Und Suarez, University of Münster, Westfalia.
  21. Muñoz Delgado, V. 1986. "La Suposición De Los Términos En Juan De Oria Y Otros Lógicos Salmantinos (1510-1535)." In Homenaje a Pedro Sainz Rodriguez. (Volume Iv), 335-367. Madrid: Fundación Universitaria Española.
  22. Muñoz Garcia, Angel. 1990. "La 'Confusa' Suposición Sólo Confusa." Analogia no. 4 (2):113-141.
  23. "A Propósito De La Suposición Habitual." In Itinéraires D'albert De Saxe, edited by Biard, Joël, 125-136. Paris: Vrin.
  24. "Es La Determinada Una Suposición Distributiva?" Medioevo no. 17:309-346.
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  26. Normore, C Ockham on Mental Language." In Historical Foundations of Cognitive Science, edited by Smith, J.C., 53-70. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
    "Thanks largely to the work of Noam Chomsky, we have witnessed over the last thirty years a revival of interest in two closely related ideas: that there is a universal grammar, a set of structural features common to every human language, and that the exploration of this grammar is, in part, an exploration of the structure of thought.
    Fourteenth century grammarians and philosophers were also interested in this complex of questions, and debate about them raged as vigorously then as now. One tradition in this debate grew out of thirteenth century terminist logic and seems to have been given a distinctive shape by William Ockham This tradition posited a fully-fledged language of thought common to all rational beings and prior to al linguistic convention. In this essay I will attempt to outline Ockham's account of this mental language, to consider some fourteenth century objections which lead to the refinement of the account by others in the fourteenth century, and finally to suggest that Ockham's approach has something to contribute to current debate about the relationship between the theory of meaning and any language of thought.
    At the very beginning of his Summa Logicae Ockham claims that there are three distinct types of language: written, spoken, and mental. He insists that written and spoken language are distinct in kind and that there is a type of language whose terms are concepts and which exists only in the mind. (1)
    Ockham's mental language plays several distinct roles within his philosophy. On the one hand, mental language figures crucially in the semantics of spoken and written language. On the other hand, mental language is a fully articulated language which is suited to be spoken by natural telepaths and is spoken by the angels. These two kinds of role require very different features of mental language, features which, as we shall see, sometimes pull its structure in opposite directions."
    (1) Cf. W. Ockham, Summa Logicae I. C. 1 in P. Boehner, G. Gal, S. Brown (eds.), Opera Philosophica (St. Bonaventure, NY: The Franciscan Institute, 1974).
  27. ———. 1997. "Material Supposition and the Mental Language of Ockham's Summa Logicae." Topoi no. 16 (1):27-33.
  28. Novaes, C A Study of William of Ockham's Logic - from Suppositio to Truth Conditions, University of Amsterdam.
  29. A Teoria Da Suposição De Guilherme De Ockham. Uma Reconstrução.
    Master's thesis defended at the University of São Paulo, for the obtention of the MA degree in April 2003.
    "This work is the result of my attempts to combine my Philosophy background with the Mathematical Logic inclinations of the institution within which this research was developed. In fact, this twofold character is noticeable in many features thereof; I shall now outline some of them. The project has two main purposes: the less risky one is to provide an account of William of Ockham's logical thinking, with focus on its aspects which bear a relation with the contemporary issues of intensional logics and possible-world semantics. The more risky one consists of investigating the possibilities of developing a purely extensional treatment of intensional contexts, such as tense and modalities. For the latter, some other extensional/nominalistic systems could have played the role of `experimental sample', but there seemed to be something intriguing about Ockham, as one wonders whether a philosopher from the XIVth century would have something relevant to add to our present logical issues. Moreover, he is considered to be the founder of nominalism, so the historical interest of such enterprise was self-evident - therefore, the legitimacy of the first purpose. I shall try to comply with two very distinct kinds of expectations: those which are the desiderata for a History of Philosophy work, and those of logicians, who are interested in the formal correcteness of the system hereby presented. The criteria of excellence of these two lines are almost incompatible, and one wonders if it is not a suicidal enterprise to try to combine them. On the one hand, an Ockham scholar may be discontent with the absence of a few important aspects of Ockham's logic, since I deliberately priorize those related to contemporary logic. On the other hand, a logician may be bothered by the presence of too many `antiquities', perhaps hindering logical clarity. So, at the risk of displeasing everybody, I nevertheless maintain that such a combination may turn out to be fruitful and informative to both sides. Chapter 1 will display some fundamental aspects of Ockham's logic and semantics, in a rather historical approach. However, even this part is developed taking into account what I later shall want to establish as my version of an `ockhamist system'. I consider it to be the flaw of many such reconstructions that they do not undertake a serious analysis of the underlying concepts; alternatively, some which did rely on such an analysis have reached very interesting results. Chapter 2 relates some apparently less central (when compared to supposition theory, for example) issues of Ockham's theory to relevant topics of Contemporary Philosophy, such as possible worlds, designation, demonstratives etc... In this chapter I also introduce conceptual tools which I will make use of for the reconstruction undertaken in chapter 3. Finally, Chapter 3 is an attempt to provide truth conditions for quantified, modal and tense propositions, based on the truth of singular propositions. I hereby hope to reach a rather broad account of Ockham's thinking, even though my main target is to build a coherent and correctly structured reconstruction of his theory of propositions."
  30. "Theory of Supposition Vs. Theory of Fallacies in Ockham." Vivarium no. 45:343-359.
    "I propose to examine the issue of whether the ancient tradition in logic continued to be developed in the later medieval period from the vantage point of the relations between two specific groups of theories, namely the medieval theories of supposition and the (originally) ancient theories of fallacies. More specifically, I examine whether supposition theories absorbed and replaced theories of fallacies, or whether the latter continued to exist, with respect to one particular author, William of Ockham. I compare different parts of Ockham's Summa Logicae, namely III-4 (on fallacies), and the final chapters of part I and first chapters of part II (on supposition). I conclude that there is overlap of conceptual apparatus and of goals (concerning propositions that must be distinguished) in Ockham's theories of supposition and of fallacies, but that the respective conceptual apparatuses also present substantial dissimilarities. Hence, theories of supposition are better seen as an addition to the general logical framework that medieval authors had inherited from ancient times, rather than the replacement of an ancient tradition by a medieval one. Indeed, supposition theories and fallacy theories had different tasks to fulfil, and in this sense both had their place in fourteenth century logic."
  31. Formalizing Medieval Logical Theories. Suppositio, Consequentiae and Obligationes. New York: Springer.
    Contents: Introduction I-XII; 1. Supposition theory: algorithmic hermeneutics 7; 2. Buridan's notion of Consequentia 79; 3. Obligationes as logical games 145; 4. The philosophy of formalization 215; Conclusion 293; References 301; Index of names and topics 310.
    "This book presents novel formalizations of three of the most important medieval logical theories: supposition, consequence and obligations. In an additional fourth part, an in-depth analysis of the concept of formalization is presented - a crucial concept in the current logical panorama, which as such receives surprisingly little attention. Although formalizations of medieval logical theories have been proposed earlier in the literature, the formalizations presented here are all based on innovative vantage points: supposition theories as algorithmic hermeneutics, theories of consequence analyzed with tools borrowed from model-theory and two-dimensional semantics, and obligations as logical games. For this reason, this is perhaps the first time that these medieval logical theories are made fully accessible to the modern philosopher and logician who wishes to obtain a better grasp of them, but who has always been held back by the lack of appropriate 'translations' into modern terms. Moreover, the book offers a reflection on the very nature of logic, a reflection that is prompted by the comparisons between medieval and modern logic, their similarities and dissimilarities. It is thus a contribution not only to the history of logic, but also to the philosophy of logic, the philosophy of language and semantics. The analysis of medieval logic is also relevant for the modern philosopher and logician in that, being the unifying methodology used across all disciplines at that time, logic really provided unity to science. It thus presents a unified model of scientific investigation, where logic plays the aggregating role."
  32. An Intensional Interpretation of Ockham's Theory of Supposition." Journal of the History of Philosophy no. 46:365-394.
    "According to a widespread view in medieval scholarship, theories of supposition are the medieval counterparts of theories of reference, and are thus essentially extensional theories. The author proposes an alternative interpretation: theories of supposition are theories of properties of terms, but whose aim is to allow for the interpretation of sentences. This holds especially of Ockham's supposition theory, which is the main object of analysis in this paper. In particular, she argues for my intensional interpretation of his theory on the basis of two key-phrases in his Summa Logicae: 'denotatur' and 'propositio est distinguenda'. Finally, she offers a reconstruction of his theory as a set of instructions to be carried out in order to generate the possible readings of (certain) sentences."
  33. Nuchelmans, G "Medieval Problems Concerning Substitutivity." In Atti Del Convegno Internazionale Di Storia Della Logica (San Gimignano, 4-8 December 1982), edited by Abrusci, Vito Michele, Casari, Ettore and Mugnai, Massimo, 69-80. Bologna: CLUEB.
  34. "Some Remarks on the Role of Mental Sentences in Medieval Semantics." Histoire, Épistémologie, Langage no. 14:47-59.
    "After introducing the notion of mental language as it was developed especially by William of Ockham this article focuses on the role of mental sentences in the logical interpretation of belief-ascriptions. First, the divergent positions advocated by Frege and Searle are outlined. Next, it is asked how the fourteenth-century Parisian logician Jean Buridan might hare handled such statements as 'The sheriff believes that Mr. Howard is an honest man'. It is concluded that in spite of many superficial differences, at bottom Buridan's view is rather similar to Searle's account. In particular, both authors hold that in reported speech the words 'Mr. Howard is an honest man' keep their usual meaning as far as reference and predication are concerned."
  35. ******* P *********
  36. Panaccio, C "Suppositio Naturalis Au Xiii Siècle Et Signification Chez Guillaume D'occam." In Abstracts of the Vith International Congress of Logic. Methodology, and Philosophy of Science. Sections 13 and 14, 137-140. Hannover.
  37. "Guillaume D'occam: Signification Et Supposition." In Archéologie Du Signe, edited by Brind'Amour, Lucie and Vance, Eugène, 265-286. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
  38. "Supposition Naturelle Et Signification Occamiste." In De Ortu Grammaticae. Studies in Medieval Grammar and Linguistics Theory in Memory of Jan Pinborg, edited by Bursill-Hall, Geoffrey L., Ebbesen, Sten and Koerner, Konrad, 255-269. Amsterdam, Philadelphia: John Benjamin Publishing Company.
  39. "Connotative Terms in Ockham's Mental Language." Cahiers d'Épistémologie:1-22.
  40. . "From Mental Word to Mental Language." Philosophical Topics no. 20 (2):125-147.
  41. "Intuition, Abstraction Et Langage Mental Dans La Théorie Occamiste De La Connaissance." Revue de Métaphysique et de Morale no. 97 (1):61-82.
  42. . "Le Langage Mental En Discussion: 1320-1335." Etudes Philosophiques:323-339.
  43. "Des Signes Dans L'intellect." Cahiers d'Épistémologie:1-30.
    Reprinted in: Harjett Singh Gill and Giovanni Manetti (eds.) - Signs and Signification - Vol. II. New Delhi, Bahri Publications, 2000, pp. 63-88.
  44. ———. 1997. "Angel's Talk, Mental Language, and the Transparency of the Mind." In Vestigia, Imagines, Verba. Semiotics and Logic in Medieval Theological Texts (Xiith-Xivth Century). Acts of the Xith Symposium on Medieval Logic and Semantics. San Marino, 24-28 May 1994, edited by Marmo, Costantino, 323-335. Brepols.
  45. ———. 1999. Le Discours Intérieur. De Platon À Guillaume D'ockham. Paris: Editions du Seuil.
    Sur ce livre voir: Laval Théologique et Philosophique, vol. 57 n. 2 (June 2001).
    Table: Avant-propos 13; Introduction 17; Première Partie: Les Sources; 1. Platon et Aristote 29; 2. Logos endiathetos 53; 3. Verbum in corde 94; 4. Oratio mentalis 120; Deuxième Partie: Les controverses du XIII siècle; 5. Triple est le verbe 153; 6. L'acte contre l'idole 177; 7. Le concept et le signe 202; 8. De quoi la logique parle-t-elle? 228; Troisième Partie: La Via moderna; 9. L'intervention d'Ockham 253; 10. 10. Réactions 279; Conclusion 305; Bibliographie 321; Index des noms 335-342.
  46. ———. 1999. "Grammar and Mental Language in the Pseudo-Kilwardby." In Medieval Analyses in Language and Cognition. Acts of the Symposium: The Copenhagen School of Medieval Philosophy, 10-13 January, 1996, edited by Ebbesen, Sten and Friedman, Russell, 397-413. Copenhagen: C. A. Reitzels.
    "In his commentary on the Priscianus Major, the author known as the Pseudo-Kilwardby proposed inner speech as the proper object for scientific grammar. It is shown here that this sermo in mente is something quite different from William of Ockham's later oratio mentalis it is a mental representation of words and not of things in general. The Pseudo-Kilwardby, in effect, delineates a purely intellectual level of linguistic representation, with a universal deep structure richly furnished. This doctrinal development is situated in its context, against the background of the increasing popularity of Aristotle's Posterior Analytics at the mid thirteenth-century university."
  47. "Semantics and Mental Language." In The Cambridge Companion to Ockham, edited by Spade, Paul Vincent, 53-75. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    "At the outset of Summa Logicae, Ockham endorses Boethius's old distinction between three sorts of discourse: written, spoken, and mental. The first two, he explains, are physically perceptible, whether by the eye or by the ear, and are made up of conventional signs. The units of mental language, by contrast, are concepts. They are internal to thinking minds, and their signification is natural rather than conventional. Being mental, they are not directly perceptible - at least not in this world - to anybody but the person who internally produces them in the course of his or her private thinking. But being originally acquired as the result of a natural process, they are nevertheless strongly similar - and identically organized - from one human being to another. Although it is not a public medium of communication, mental language is potentially common to all. Mental language is prior to, and underlies, every reasonable speech utterance and provides it with meaning. Ockham's semantical theory, as presented in Summa Logicae and elsewhere, is primarily an explication of the various ways in which the natural conceptual signs that constitute the language of thought are linked with their external referents; and secondarily, of the ways in which conventional discourse is derived from this mental language."
  48. "Guillaume D'ockham, Les Connotatifs Et Le Langage Mental." Documenti e Studi sulla Tradizione Filosofica Medievale no. XI:297-316.
    Updated translation of: Connotative Terms in Ockham's Mental Language.
  49. ———. 2001. "Réponses De L'auteur. De Quelques Variations Sur Un Thème Séculaire." Laval Théologique et Philosophique no. 57:261-276.
    "This paper replies to questions raised by Claude Lafleur, Martin Achard, Paul-Hubert Poirier, David Piché and Marie-Andrée Ricard about the author's book, Le discours intérieur (1999). The following points are discussed: the methods of historical work in philosophy (with reference to Alain de Libera's ideas on the subject), the treatment of the notion of logos endiathetos in Stoic thought, in Philo of Alexandria and in Irenaeus of Lyon, the relations between philosophy and theology in medieval Scholasticism, and those of hermeneutics with Augustine's understanding of the inner word."
  50. "Debates on Mental Language in the Early Fourteenth Century." In Aristotle's Peri Hermeneias in the Latin Middle Ages Essays on the Commentary Tradition, edited by Braakhuis, Henk A.G. and Kneepkens, Corneille Henry, 85-101. Groningen: Ingenium Publishers.
  51. ———. 2003. "Ockham and Locke on Mental Language." In The Medieval Heritage in Early Modern Metaphysics and Modal Theory, 1400-1700, edited by Friedman, Russell and Nielsen, Lauge, 37-52. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
    "For both Ockham and Locke, the objects of knowledge and belief are mental propositions really composed of simpler mental units called 'concepts' in Ockham and 'ideas' in Locke. These units are, for both philosophers, natural signs of external things and the primary repositories of generality. Despite these striking similarities, the paper argues that these two theories belong in fact to different and incompatible families. This is shown by focusing on two crucial differences between them concerning (a) signification, and (b) reference (or 'suppositio')."
  52. ———. 2003. "Connotative Concepts and Their Definitions in Ockham's Nominalism." In La Tradition Médiévale Des Catégories (Xiie-Xve Siècles), edited by Biard, Joël and Rosier-Catach, Irène, 141-155. Louvain: Peeters.
  53. ———. 2004. Ockham on Concepts. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  54. ———. 2004. "Tarski Et La Suppositio Materialis." Philosophiques no. 31:295-309.
    "In his 1944 paper The Semantic Conception of Truth and the Foundations of Semantics, Alfred Tarski refers in so many words to the medieval idea of "suppositio materialis". The interpretation he suggests for it, however, is historically misleading, and this historical inaccuracy yields in this case what can be taken to be an unfortunate philosophical mistake. In " 'snow is white' is true ", Tarski sees the phrase "snow is white" (between quotation marks) as the name of a certain sentence, while the medieval philosophers would have seen it rather as an occurrence of that very sentence, but taken in a special use, the suppositio materialis . The paper shows how these two approaches differ exactly and argues that the medieval theory is philosophically preferable in that (1) it is descriptively more adequate with respect to natural languages, (2) it is more appropriate even for artificial languages, which it renders both more effective and more intelligible, and (3) it rests upon the identification of an important phenomenon, the generality of which is missed by the Tarskian type semantics, namely the duality of principle between the extension of a term in itself and the extension it receives within a given propositional context."
  55. ———. 2005. "Le Paradoxe Du Menteur Et Le Langage Mental: Réflexions Sur L'approche Restrictionniste." In Logique Et Ontologie: Perspectives Diachroniques Et Synchroniques, edited by François, Beets and Gavray, Marc-Antoine, 55-71. Liège: Éditions Université de Liège.
    "Restrictionism is an approach to the Liar paradox and related puzzles that was quite popular in the thirteenth and early fourteenth century.
    The idea is to resort to a rule restricting the reference of certain terms (their 'suppositio') in certain propositional contexts. But how are such apparently ad hoc rules supposed to govern thought itself, or mental language? This objection was raised against restrictionism by Thomas Bradwardine and John Buridan (around 1330), and was considered decisive. The present paper re-examines this discussion and re-evaluates in consequence the prospects that remain for a defensible form of restrictionism."
  56. ———. 2007. "Guillaume D'ockham Et Les Syncatégorèmes Mentaux: La Première Théorie." Histoire, Épistémologie, Langage no. 25:145-160.
  57. ———. 2007. "Mental Language and Tradition Encounters in Medieval Philosophy: Anselm, Albert and Ockham." Vivarium no. 45:269-282.
    "Medieval philosophy is often presented as the outcome of a large scale encounter between the Christian tradition and the Greek philosophical one. This picture, however, inappropriately tends to leave out the active role played by the medieval authors themselves and their institutional contexts. The theme of the mental language provides us with an interesting case study in such matters. The paper first introduces a few technical notions-'theme', 'tradition', 'textual chain' and 'textual borrowing'-, and then focuses on precise passages about mental language from Anselm of Canterbury, Albert the Great and William of Ockham. All three authors in effect identify some relevant Augustinian idea (that of 'mental word', most saliently) with some traditional philosophical one (such as that of 'concept' or that of 'logos endiathetos'). But the gist of the operation widely varies along the line and the tradition encounter is staged in each case with specific goals and interests in view. The use of ancient authoritative texts with respect to mental language is thus shown to be radically transformed from the eleventh to the fourteenth century."
  58. ———. 2007. "Ockham and Locke on Mental Language." In The Medieval Heritage in Early Modern Metaphysics and Modal Theory, 1400-1700, edited by Friedman, Russell and Nielsen, Lauge, 37-52. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  59. Panaccio, C & E. Perini. "Guillaume D'ockham Et La Suppositio Materialis." Vivarium no. 42:202-224.
    "The paper aims at showing how William of Ockham's theory of material supposition can cope with certain interesting difficulties recently raised about it by various commentators. The theory is first broken down into five main theses. We then explain how the resulting cluster is consistent with Ockham's general approach to signification, how it accounts for the grammaticality of the relevant sentences, and how it determines which spoken or written expressions a given word or phrase stands for when taken in material supposition."
  60. Parsons, Terence. 1994. "Anaphoric Pronouns in Very Late Medieval Supposition Theory." Linguistics and Philosophy no. 17:429-445.
    "This paper arose from an attempt to determine how the very late medieval (1) supposition theorists treated anaphoric pronouns, pronouns whose significance is derivative from their antecedents. Modern researches into pronouns were stimulated in part by the problem of "donkey sentences" discussed by Geach (1962) in a section explaining what is wrong with medieval supposition theory. So there is some interest in seeing exactly what the medieval account comes to, especially if it turns out, as I suspect, to work as well as contemporary ones. Besides, finding a good analysis of pronouns has proved to be very difficult, and so we might possibly find some insight in a historically different kind of approach.
    I discuss a version of supposition theory that aims at producing analyses of sentences containing quantified terms, (2)' as articulated around 1400 by Paul of Venice, and as further developed by certain logicians such as de Soto and Celaya in the 1400's and early 1500's, (3) Much of what I will say also applies indirectly to earlier versions of supposition theory (before 1400)."
    (1) I say very late medieval' because the period in question (1400-1600) would normally be classified as Renaissance. I am individuating the period by its themes, not solely by its dates.
    (2) This was not obviously the intent of the great developers of supposition theory from 1250 to the late 1300's: Peter of Spain, William Sherwood. Roger flacon, William Ockham, Walter Burleigh, John Buridan. For them suppositional "descended forms" follow logically from the sentences under discussion, but they do not analyze those sentences because they are not generally equivalent to those sentences. (This is important in Geach's (1962) criticisms of supposition theory.) A burning issue in scholarship on supposition theory is: what was it is supposed to be for? One popular answer is that it is supposed to yield an analysis of quantification. This answer accords well with later accounts, but poorly with earlier ones, because the earlier "analyses" are often obviously not equivalent in truth value to the sentences being "analyzed." (See e.g. Matthews, 1964.) I assume equivalence in the theories under discussion.
    (3) For details of the mature theory see Ashworth (1974).
  61. ———. 1997. "Supposition as Quantification Versus Supposition as Global Quantificational Effect." Topoi no. 16 (1):41-63.
    "This paper follows up a suggestion by Paul Vincent Spade that there were two medieval theories of the modes of personal supposition. I suggest that early work by Sherwood and others was a study of quantifiers: their semantics and the effects of context on inferences that can be made from quantified terms. Later, in the hands of Burley and others, it changed into a study of something else, a study of what I call "global quantificational effect."
  62. ———. 1997. Missing Modes of Supposition. In Canadian Journal of Philosophy
    Meaning and reference, edited by Kazmi, Ali: University of Calgary Press.
  63. ———. 2006. "The Doctrine of Distribution." History and Philosophy of Logic no. 27:59-74.
    "Peter Geach describes the 'doctrine of distribution' as the view that a term is distributed if it refers to everything that it denotes, and undistributed if it refers to only some of the things that it denotes.
    He argues that the notion, so explained, is incoherent. He claims that the doctrine of distribution originates from a degenerate use of the notion of 'distributive supposition' in medieval supposition theory sometime in the 16th century. This paper proposes instead that the doctrine of distribution occurs at least as early as the 12th century, and that it originates from a study of Aristotle's notion of a term's being 'taken universally', and not from the much later theory of distributive supposition. A detailed version of the doctrine found in the Port Royal Logic is articulated, and compared with a slightly different modern version. Finally, Geach's arguments for the incoherence of the doctrine are discussed and rejected."
  64. ———. 2008. "The Development of Supposition Theory in the Later 12th through 14th Centuries." In Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic, edited by Gabbay, Dov and Woods, John, 157-280. Amsterdam: Elsevier.
    Handbook of the history of logic: Vol. 2.
  65. Perini-Santos, Ernesto. 2000. "Linguagem E Interpretação: O Recurso À Linguagem Mental Em Ockham." Veritas.Revista de Filosofia no. 45:339-348.
    "According to William Ockham's semantics it is crucial to resort to mental language. In this article, having recourse to mental language is examined so as to show one arrives at composed sentences which signify without any commitment to the psychic reality of the attained acts."
  66. ———. 2005. "A Composição Real Da Proposição Mental Ockhamiana." Analytica.Revista de Filosofia no. 9:67-92.
    "Mental language explains the significative character of written and spoken languages; its elements and structures are identified by criteria that belong to a theory serving this purpose. It seems that these criteria allow a certain indeterminacy, if we expect to choose among different possible canonical presentations of mental language.
    But such a choice is not necessary at all for mental language to serve its theoretical purposes. There is a kind a indeterminacy, concerning tokens of mental propositions, that can really be found in Ockham's texts: a mental proposition can be a simple mental act, and have a compositional semantics. This astonishing thesis reminds us that although semantical analysis that identify structures of mental language describes a psychological reality, the psychological description itself must also take account of other domains of Ockham's philosophy, in particular his theory of mental acts"
  67. ———. 2007. "La Structure De L'acte Intellectif Dans Les Théories Ockhamiennes Du Concept." Vivarium:93-112.
    "William of Ockham held in his career two different theories about the nature of concepts. According to the first theory, concepts are forged by the mind and "terminate" the mental acts which produce them. This so called "fictum"-theory was abandoned, and Ockham held another theory, according to which concepts are identified with the mental acts themselves. While I think this is a correct description of the evolution of his philosophy, there is one aspect that has gone so far (almost) unnoticed : in his later theory, not only concepts do not terminate mental acts, but nothing seems fit to play this role. Mental acts are no longer "terminated" by anything. Therefore, as the theory of concepts changes, there is also a change in the theory of mental acts. This last change explains the disappearance of the vocabulary associated with the verb "terminare" in the exposition of the mental act theory."
  68. Perler, Dominik. 1997. "Crathorn on Mental Language." In Vestigia, Imagines, Verba. Semiotics and Logic in Medieval Theological Texts (Xiith-Xivth Century). Acts of the Xith Symposium on Medieval Logic and Semantics. San Marino, 24-28 May 1994, edited by Marmo, Costantino, 337-354. Brepols.
  69. Perreiah, Alan Richard. 1967. Is There a Doctrine of Supposition in the Logica Magna?, Indiana University.
    UMI Dissertation Express. Order number: 6715146
  70. ———. 1971. "Approaches to Supposition Theory." New Scholasticism no. 45:381-408.
    "The past 25 years have seen an increasing interest in later medieval logic and in the theory of supposition. A review of literature reveals, however, wide differences of interpretation of supposition-theory. Taking the theory in the widest sense as a contribution to semiotic or the theory of signs, this study shows how supposition has been variously treated as a syntactical, semantical and even pragmatical theory. The main views of P. Boehner, E. Moody, P. Geach, D. P. Henry, W. C. Kneale and L. M. De Rijk are examined, compared and appraised with respect to overall progress in the elucidation of supposition theory."
  71. ———. 1986. "Supposition Theory: A New Approach." New Scholasticism no. 60:213-231.
  72. Piché, David. 2001. "Philosophie Médiévale. Anselme De Cantorbéry, Thomas D'aquin Et Guillaume D'ockham Sur Le Thème Du Discours Intérieur: Quel Est Le Problème?" Laval Théologique et Philosophique no. 57:243-249.
    "The notion of internal discourse (locutio mentis, verbum mentis or oratio mentalis), as it was worked out in the Latin Middle Ages, fulfilled different theoretical functions and aims, depending on the authors who had recourse to it. The following text asks Claude Panaccio a simple question: what problem(s) exactly do Anselm of Canterbury, Thomas Aquinas and William Ockham attempt respectively to solve by appealing to this notion?"
  73. Poveda, E. 1963. "El Tratado "De Suppositionibus Dialecticis" De San Vicente Ferrer Y Su Significación Historica En La Cuestión De Los Universales." Anales del Seminario de Valencia no. 3:5-88.
  74. Price, Robert. 1970. "William of Ockham and Suppositio Personalis." Franciscan Studies no. 30:131-140.
  75. Priest, Graham, and Read, Stephen. 1977. "The Formalization of Ockham's Theory of Supposition." Mind no. 86:109-113.
    "The point of the paper is to show that the medieval theory of personal supposition can be formalised using the standard tools of modern logic. A formal account of the modes of supposition is given and it is shown how these can be used to obtain the descensus in standard cases. The formalisation is used to show that Ockham's views on the supposition of the predicate in the "o" form are mistaken, and to refute the following claims: (a) the medievals omitted some modes of supposition; (b) they had too many modes of supposition; and, (c) their theory is incapable of handling multiple quantification."
  76. ———. 1980. "Merely Confused Suppposition. A Theoretical Advance or a Mere Confusion?" Franciscan Studies no. 40:265-297.
    "Our task is an extended defence of the notion of merely confused supposition in medieval semantic theory. For the nominalist it provided a complete apparatus for detailing truth-conditions. A formalisation of the mature theory is given and used to relate the notion to modern philosophy of language. The lack of need for further modes of supposition is detailed both theoretically and historically. The extension of the notion to intensional contexts is discussed briefly."
  77. ———. 1981. "Ockham's Rejection of Ampliation." Mind no. 90:274-279.
    "The standard mediaeval account of the truth-conditions of modal and tensed sentences used a notion of "ampliation", whereby the class of objects for which a term supposits could be extended beyond the class of things of which it could be truly predicated. Ockham did not use the notion in his account. We examine why this was, explain Ockham's account, and argue that it is preferable to the ampliative one. In particular, the authors show the ambiguities found in modal and tensed sentences to be, contrary to popular opinion, different, and support Ockham's contention that the ambiguity in the tensed case is not one of sense (signification) but of reference (supposition)."
  78. Prieto del Rey, Maurilio. 1963. "Significación Y Sentido Ultimado. La Nociòn De "Suppositio" En La Logica De Juan De Santo Tomás (First Part)." Convivium (Barcelona) no. 15-16:33-73.
  79. . "Significación Y Sentido Ultimado. La Nociòn De "Suppositio" En La Logica De Juan De Santo Tomás (Second Part)." Convivium (Barcelona) no. 19-20:45-72.
  80. *****************R ********************
  81. Read, Stephen. 1991. "Thomas of Cleves and Collective Supposition." Vivarium no. 29:50-84.
    "In the nominalist theories of language in the first half of the fourteenth century, it was common practice to distinguish three modes of common personal supposition. Considerations of symmetry lead one naturally to consider the possibility of a fourth mode, corresponding to a nominal conjunction. Investigation of little known writings of the late fourteenth century and later reveal that two schools of thought developed, one originating from a Parisian logician Thomas of Cleves, who supported the addition of a fourth mode, the other vigorously rejecting it."
  82. ———. 1999. "How Is Material Supposition Possible?" Medieval philosophy and theology no. 8:1-20.
    "In the early fourteenth century, material supposition was characterized as nonsignificative, when a term supposits for itself or other terms contrary to its normal signification. But this characterization is in tension with the doctrine of signification, which picks out the concept uniting the things for which the term supposits. This tension was appreciated by Thomas Maulfelt and others so that by the end of the century, in John Dorp for example, a further concept was associated with each term, the concept of the term itself and its equiforms. Material supposition can then be subsumed under the theory of signification."
  83. Rearden, Myles. 1982. "On Teaching Students Logic." Philosophy no. 57:130-132.
    "Is Peter Geach right to dismiss the medieval theory of distribution? Arguably, the distinction between "suppositio distributiva et confusa" and "suppositio confusa tantum" is more durable than all the rest of supposition theory. There is still valid point about how general terms stand for individuals. "some man runs" and "every man runs" both stand for everyone. The difference is that the former does so disjunctively, the latter, conjunctively. That seems enough to salvage the essence of distribution theory. Geach's rejection of distribution stems from his view that it involves assimilating nouns to proper names as regards their manner of signification. Quite the contrary, medieval distribution theory accepted the difference between a name-like referring and a more general standing-for. Distribution theory continues to make sense, and so consequently does much of the logic of categorical propositions."
  84. ———. 1984. "The Distribution of Terms." Modern Schoolman no. 61:187-195.
    "The traditional doctrine of distribution retains some validity, contrary to the view of Geach in reference and generality. The history of the doctrine is outlined. The medieval distinction between descensus copulativus and descensus disiunctivus is the core of distribution. The class interpretation of categoricals obscures the doctrine. Contemporary quantifier theory reveals it again. Geach's arguments against it are analysed and criticised."
  85. Richards, T.J. 1971. "The Two Doctrines of Distribution." Australasian Journal of Philosophy no. 49:290-302.
  86. Rijk, Lambertus Marie de. 1967. Logica Modernorum. Vol 1. A Contribution to the History of Early Terminist Logic. Assen: Van Gorcum.
    "This book deals with some doctrines in the work of mediaeval logicians which cannot be traced back to Aristotle. This 'modern logic' deals with the "proprietates terminorum". De Rijk studies its origination in the period between Abailard and Petrus Hispanus. In this first volume he concentrates upon the theory of fallacy as preserved in Abailard, the School of Parvipontani, commentaries and glosses on "Sophistici Elenchi" and "Perihermeneias" and several anonymous Twelfth Century treatises. A separate chapter is devoted to applications of this doctrine in Twelfth Century theology. In most theories, fallacies enumerated by Aristotle and Boethius are reconciled, original cases are classed under traditional headings or original interpretations are inserted."
  87. ———. 1967. Logica Modernorum. Vol 2. Part One: The Origin and Early Development of the Theory of Supposition. Assen: Van Gorcum.
  88. ———. 1967. Logica Modernorum. Vol 2. Part Two: The Origin and Early Development of the Theory of Supposition. Texts and Indices. Assen: Van Gorcum.
    "This book deals with some doctrines in the work of mediaeval logicians which cannot be traced back to Aristotle. This 'modern logic' deals with the "proprietates terminorum". De Rijk studies its origination in the period between Abailard and Petrus Hispanus. In this first volume he concentrates upon the theory of fallacy as preserved in Abailard, the School of Parvipontani, commentaries and glosses on "Sophistici Elenchi" and "Perihermeneias" and several anonymous Twelfth Century treatises. A separate chapter is devoted to applications of this doctrine in Twelfth Century theology. In most theories, fallacies enumerated by Aristotle and Boethius are reconciled, original cases are classed under traditional headings or original interpretations are inserted."
  89. ———. 1969. "Significatio Y Suppositio En Pedro Hispano." Pensamiento no. 25:225-234.
  90. ———. 1971. "The Development of Suppositio Naturalis in Medieval Logic (First Part)." Vivarium no. 9:71-107.
  91. ———. 1973. "The Development of Suppositio Naturalis in Medieval Logic (Second Part)." Vivarium no. 11:43-79.
  92. ———. 1982. "The Origins of the Theory of the Properties of Terms." In The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy, edited by Kretzmann, Norman, Kenny, Anthony Patrick and Pinborg, Jan, 161-173. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  93. ———. 1985. "La Supposition Naturelle: Une Pierre De Touche Pour Les Points De Vue Philosophiques." In La Philosophie Au Moyen Âge, 183-203. Leiden: Brill.
    Translated in Italian in: Logica e linguaggio nel medieoevo - Edited by Fedriga Riccardo and Puggioni Sara
  94. Roberts, Louise Nisbet. 1956. "Classification of Suppositions in Medieval Logic." Tulane Studies in Philosophy no. 5:79-86.
    "Classifications of supposition are a characteristic portion of the terminist logic of the Thirteenth and Fourteenth centuries. The article contains a brief explanation of classifications to be found in the texts of such logicians as Peter of Spain, Albert of Saxony, and John Buridan."
  95. ———. 1960. "Supposition: A Modern Application." Journal of Philosophy no. 57:173-182.
    "A few Twentieth Century issues found in the analysis of ordinary language are explored in terms of Fourteenth Century logic. The late medieval theory of supposition is applied to problems appearing in the work of such recent thinkers as W. V. O. Quine and P. F. Strawson."
  96. Roncaglia, Gino. 2000. "Mesino De Codronchi's Discussion on Syncategoremata and Mental Language in His Quaestiones on De Interpretatione." In Ob Rogatum Meorum Sociorum. Studi in Memoria Di Lorenzo Pozzi, edited by Caroti, Steano and Pinzani, Roberto. Milano: Franco Angeli.
  97. Ross, James, ed. 1971. Inquiries into Medieval Philosophy. A Collection in Honor of Francis P. Clarke. Westport: Greenwood.
  98. ****************S *********************
  99. Sagal, Paul Thomas. 1967. The Concept of Supposition and Its Place in the Development of Medieval Semantology, Ph. D. University of Pennsylvania.
    UMI Dissertaion Express reference number 6809232
  100. ———. 1973. "On Refuting and Defending Supposition Theory." New Scholasticism no. 47:84-87.
    "P. T. Geach's critique of medieval supposition theory has generated much controversy. Supposition theory is neither as guilty as Geach claims, nor as innocent as Scott, one of Geach's critics, claims. Geach takes a medieval account of supposition, the "Ockham-Buridan" account, and attempts to show that it provides us with unacceptable semantic analyses of certain propositions. According to him, supposition theory treats applicatives as associating with common nouns to form referring expressions. However, there is no way to render intelligible the referents of expressions like 'some dancers' and 'all dancers'. Geach sees this semantic foul-up as a consequence of supposition theory's failure to assign applicatival expressions to the proper grammatical category. T. K. Scott counters that the medieval treatment of applicatives parallels modern logic's treatment of quantifiers."
  101. Schaeffer, F. 1987. "Syntax and Semantics in Supposition Theory." In Ockham and Ockhamists., edited by Bos, Egbert Peter and Krop, H.A., 63-69. Nijmegen: Ingenium Publishers.
    Acts of the Ockham-Symposium at the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Dutch Society for Medieval Philosophy Medium Aevum (10-12 September 1986)
  102. Schoot, Henk J.M. 1993. "Aquinas and Supposition. The Possibilities and Limitations of Logic in Divinis." Vivarium no. 31 (2):193-225.
    "A study of "(modes of) signification" and "supposition", key terms in 13th century semantics, in the work of Thomas Aquinas, with special focus on "suppositio naturalis". It is argued that in Aquinas the distinction between signification (connotation) and supposition (denotation) is maintained, even though the terms "supponere pro" and "suppositio naturalis" are used to indicate sometimes the one and sometimes the other semantical function. This feature is explained from the theological purposes that semantics serves. The study forms part of an investigation of Aquinas' use of semantics in theology, published in "Christ the Name' of God. Thomas Aquinas on Naming Christ," Louvain 1993"
  103. Scott, Theodore Kermit. 1966. "Geach on Supposition Theory." Mind no. 75:586-588.
  104. Seung-Chan, Park. 1999. Die Rezeption Der Mittelalterlichen Sprachphilosophie in Der Theologie Des Thomas Von Aquin. Mit Besonderer Berücksichtigung Der Analogie. Leiden: Brill.
    "One of Thomas Aquinas's central ideas is his attempt to show how it is possible to speak about the incomprehensible God. To reach a better understanding of this project, it is necessary to gain some insight into how he used the theories he acquired during his time in the faculty of arts in his philosophical-theological works.
    Park's book deals with the question which, despite the current flourishing of the studies of the medieval philosophy of language, has not received much attention. The application of the theories of signification and supposition as well as the doctrine of the modi significandi is reconstructed systematically. Consequently, the traditional doctrine of analogy appears in a new light.
    The interpretations of the texts in question are exemplary for the work of philosophical interpretations. The reader is guided by overviews, schematical drawings and references."
  105. Smithka, P Ampliation and Natural Supposition in Albert of Saxony's Quaestiones Super Logicam." In Itinéraires D'albert De Saxe, Paris-Vienne Au Xiv Siécle, edited by Biard, Joël, 137-148. Paris: Vrin.
  106. SPADE, P. 1974. "Ockham's Rule of Supposition: Two Conflicts in His Theory." Vivarium no. 12:63-67.
    Reprinted in Lies, language and logic in the late Middle Ages - chapter IX
  107. . "Five Logical Tracts by Richard Lavenham." In Essays in Honour of Anton Charles Pegis, edited by O'Donnell, Reginald, 70-124. Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
    "This article is an edition of Richard Lavenham's Suppositiones, Consequentiae, Tractatus exclusivarum, Exceptivae, and Tractatus qui Differt et Aliud Nuncupatur, based on the British Museum Sloane ms. 3899."
  108. "Some Epistemological Implications of the Burley-Ockham Dispute." Franciscan Studies no. 35:212-222.
    Reprinted in Lies, language and logic in the late Middle Ages - chapter XIII
    "The Fourteenth century debate between Walter Burley and William of Ockham is usually viewed as a metaphysical dispute between a realist and a nominalist. But there are epistemological questions at stake too. I argue that Burley's and Ockham's answers to the question "what kind of supposition is it in which a term supposits for what it signifies" are independent of their metaphysical views, and have epistemological consequences. I explore some of these consequences, and argue that Ockham's position allows us in principle to have knowledge of anything in his ontology, whereas Burley's does not."
  109. "Ockham's Distinctions between Absolute and Connotative Terms." Vivarium no. 13:55-76.
    Reprinted in Spade Lies, language and logic - chapter XI
    "A philosophical analysis of the distinction between absolute and connotative terms, drawn mainly from Ockham's "summa logicae". The article explores the implications of this distinction on Ockham's theory of mental language."
  110. "Priority of Analysis and the Predicates of O-Form Sentences." Franciscan Studies no. 36:263-270.
    Reprinted in Lies, language and logic in the late Middle Ages - chapter XII
    "Ockham claims that the predicates of particular negative (0-form) sentences have confused and distributive supposition. This view conflicts with the view that the modes of personal supposition are meant to provide analyses. I argue that the same problem emerges whenever a term in merely confused term is put within the scope of a negation, and that a "priority of analysis" rule (Swiniarski) will not avoid this general problem."
  111. "Synonymy and Equivocation in Ockham's Mental Language." Journal of the History of Philosophy no. 18:9-22.
    Reprinted in Lies, language and logic in the late Middle Ages - chapter XIII
    "A textual and philosophical study of the claim that according to Ockham there is no synonymy or equivocation in mental language. It is argued that Ockham is committed to both claims, either explicitly or in virtue of other features of his doctrine. Nevertheless, both claims lead to difficulties for Ockham's theory."
  112. "The Semantic of Terms." In The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy, edited by Kretzmann, Norman, Kenny, Anthony Patrick and Pinborg, Jan, 188-196. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  113. "The Logic of the Categorical: The Medieval Theory of Descent and Ascent." In Meaning and Inference in Medieval Philosophy, edited by Kretzmann, Norman, 187-224. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
  114. . "Ockham, Adams and Connotation: A Critical Notice of Marilyn Adams William Ockham." Philosophical Review no. 99:593-612.
  115. "Walter Burley on the Simple Supposition of Singular Terms." Topoi no. 16 (1):7-13.
    "This paper argues that Burley's theory of simple supposition is not as it has usually been presented. The prevailing view is that Burley and other authors agreed that simple supposition was in every case supposition for a universal, and that the disagreement over simple supposition between, say, Ockham and Burley was merely a disagreement over what a universal was (a piece of the ontology? a concept?), combined with a separate disagreement over what terms signify (the speaker's thoughts? the objects the thoughts are about?).
    In fact, however, Burley explicitly allows that some instances of simple supposition are for an individual, and that in certain cases personal supposition and simple supposition coincide. The present paper explores Burley's theory on this topic, and proposes a way of thinking about the metaphysics and the semantics that makes sense of what he says."
  116. Walter Burley, from the Beginning of His Treatise on the Kinds of Supposition (De Suppositionibus)." Topoi no. 16 (1):95-102.
    "An annotated translation from the beginning of the fourteenth century logician Walter Burley's (or Burleigh's) early treatise on supposition or reference (dated 1302). The Translation is from Stephen Brown, ed., "Walter Burleigh's Treatise "De Suppositionibus" and Its Influence on William of Ockham," "Franciscan Studies" 32 (1972), 15-64. The translation is from pp. 31-43 (paragraph 1.1-2.425) of the edition, concerning the supposition of "absolute" terms. The remainder of Burley's treatise concerns the supposition of "respective" or "relative" terms and is not translated here."
  117. "Walter Burley on the Kinds of Simple Supposition." Vivarium no. 37 (1):41-59.
  118. SPERANZA, Luigi. Join the Grice Club! The Swimming-Pool Library, Villa Speranza.
  119. Sweeney, Eileen C.  "Supposition, Signification, and Universals: Metaphysical and Linguistic Complexity in Aquinas." Freiburger Zeitschrift für Philosophie und Theologie no. 42
    "This essay places Aquinas's use of supposition theory in its metaphysical and linguistic contexts, showing, first, how Aquinas's use of supposition in the problems surrounding terms said of God illustrates Aquinas's theological and metaphysical commitments. Second, I argue that Aquinas's supposition theory organizes but does not dissolve the ambiguities and complexities of language, taking the multiplicity of meanings and references as intrinsic rather than curable aspects of language. These complexities are, for Aquinas, reflections of our imperfect imitation of the immediate and complete understanding of the divine intellect, and the composite and fragmented metaphysics of created being."
  120. J. Swiniarski ,  "A New Presentation of Ockham's Theory of Supposition with an Evaluation of Some Contemporary Criticisms." Franciscan Studies no. 30:
    "This is a critical evaluation of Ockham's theories of meaning and reference based on extensive primary source materials and especially concerned with Ockham's procedures for the extensional analysis of general propositions. The Kneales' contention that absurd conclusions follow from the application of Ockham's procedures is shown to be ill-founded. Geach's claim, that Ockham's notion of purely confused supposition is unnecessary, is supported. Some of Moody's views on supposition are upheld."
  121. ———. Theories of Supposition in Medieval Logic: Their Origin and Their Development from Abelard to Ockham.
    Ph. D. Dissertation, State University of New york at Buffalo.
  122. Synan, Edward A.  "The Universal and Supposition in a Logica Attributed to Richard of Campsall." In Nine Medieval Thinkers: A Collection of Hitherto Unedited Texts, edited by O'Donnell, J.R., Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
  123. *********** T **********************
  124. A. Tabarroni, Andrea.  "Mental Signs and the Theory of Representation in Ockham." In On the Medieval Theory of Signs, edited by Eco, Umberto and Marmo, Costantino, Amsterdam, Philadelphia: J. Benjamins.
    English translation of: Segno mentale e teoria della rappresentazione in Ockham - VS Versus.Quaderni di Studi Semiotici, 38-39, 1984, pp. 63-90.
  125. K. Tachau, Katherine, Vision and Certitude in the Age of Ockham. Optics, Epistemology and the Foundations of Semantics 1250-1345. Leiden, New York: E. J. Brill.
  126. S. Theron, Stephen, in "The Supposition of the Predicate." Modern Schoolman no. 77, writes:
    "Supposition theory (chiefly that of Aquinas) is contrasted with theories of reference. It is argued that the predicate "stands for" (supponit pro) what the subject stands for. It has the same supposition, that is, but according to its predicative mode. Supposition can be varied "ad placitum." The role of the copula is crucial, as is the principle that "only wholes can be predicated of wholes" (Aquinas: De ente et essentia). The context is a discussion of writings by Peter Geach."
  127. I. Thomas, "St. Vincent Ferrer's De Suppositionibus." Dominican Studies no. 5
  128. J. Trentman, Simple Supposition and Ontology: A Study in Fourtenth-Century Logical Theory, Ph. D. Dissertation. University of Minnesota.

  129. ———. 1970. "Ockham on Mental." Mind no. 79:586-590.
    "Mental language, according to Ockham, consists of mental acts or capacities for performing mental acts. Its structure is analogous to that of spoken or written language and is the structure of a logically ideal language. Hence its study is useful for philosophy. Ockham's concern about the apparent closeness of the analogy is also considered with reference to his discussion of the possibility of angelic (and hence nonphysical) language."
  130. ———. "Mental Language and Lying." In L'homme Et Son Univers Au Moyen Age. Actes Du Septième Congrés International De Philosophie Médiévale (30 Aout - 4 Septembre 1982 (Volume Ii), edited by Wenin, Christian, 544-553. Louvain-la-Neuve: Editions de l'Institut Supérieur de Philosophie.
  131. **************V ********************
  132. Valdivia, Benjamin. 1987. "La Suposición Semántica En Vicente Ferrer." Analogia no. 1 (2):85-91.
  133. ———. 1993. "Ockham: Suposición Y Ontologia." Analogía Filosófica.Revista de Filosófia:141-151.
    "Based on Ockham's "Summa Logicae", this article is intended to present the terms classification related to individual entities and inserted in propositions. Essence of signs is discussed, the same as reference to the world. Ockham states that sign is that which supposes a thing making it comprehensible. Supposition is made clear only in a sentence as a whole, for it is the smallest signification unit (and not the separated terms). It presents, too, conceptions of significativity and truth as qualities of sentences, composed by terms which suppose for an individualized reality."
  134. ********
  135. A. Vera Cruz, in "Sobre La Suposición." Revista de Filosofia de Mexico, 15, writes about supposition.
  136. *********
  137. G. Versace, Giovanni in "La Teoria Della Suppositio Simplex in Ockham E in Burley" in Atti Del Convegno Di Storia Della Logica (Parma), Padova: Liviana Editrice writes about Occam and Burley.
  138. **************W *********************
  139. M. Wagner, in "Supposition Theory and the Problem of Universals" (Franciscan Studies 41), writes: "I examine Burleigh's and Ockham's positions on universals through explaining their theories of signification and supposition. I argue for a representational analysis of these theories, which i distinguish from prevailing interpretations of these theories; and i argue, in particular, that when Burleigh's theory of the signification and supposition of general terms is properly understood, he is not an extreme realist (at least as this view is normally understood) and his disagreement with Ockham over universals is much more subtle than it is normally conceived by historians of philosophy."
  140. **********
  141. H. Weidemann, Hermann, in "Wilhelm Von Ockhams Suppositionstheorie Und Die Moderne Quantorenlogik" (Vivarium, 117), writes: "This essay is the enlarged German version of William of Ockham on particular negative propositions, published in "Mind", 88, The views of the following authors are discussed: P. T. Geach, G. B. Matthews, A. R. Perreiah, R. Price, G. Priest, S. Read, N. Rescher, J. Swiniarski, R. G. Turnbull."
  142. Scholasticorum Taediosa Circa Suppositiones Praecepta: Leibniz Und Die Problematik Der Suppositionstheorie." Archiv fur Geschichte der Philosophie no. 73 (3):243-260.
********* Y *****************
  1. M. Yrjönsuuri, in "Supposition and Truth in Ockham's Mental Language" (Topoi 16) writes: "In this paper, Ockham's theory of an ideal language of thought is used to illuminate problems of interpretation of his theory of truth."

  2. The twentieth century idea of logical form is used for finding out what kinds of atomic sentences there are in Ockham's mental language. It turns out that not only the theory of modes of supposition, but also the theory of supposition in general is insufficient as a full theory of truth. Rather, the theory of supposition is a theory of reference, which can help in the determination of truth values within the scope of simple predications. Outside this area, there are interesting types of sentences, whose truth does not depend on whether the terms supposit for the same things or not for the same things."
  3. Zarka, Yves Charles. 1988. "Signe, Supposition Et Dénomination. Figure Du Nominalisme Au Xvii Siècle." Revue des Sciences Philosophiques et Théologiques no. 72 (2):263-272.
  4. Zheng, Y. "Metaphysical Simplicity and Semantical Complexity of Connotative Terms in Ockham's Mental Language." Modern Schoolman 75
    "In this paper I offer a formal presentation of Ockham's connotation theory, based upon a distinction between metaphysical simplicity and semantical complexity of connotative terms, that I argue render consistent Paul Spade's claim (1975) that Ockham needs and adopted a recursive semantics for his ontological elimination and Claude Panaccio's observation (1990) that there is no simple connotative term in Ockham's mental language."

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